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To my knowledge, there are no simple design rules for photonic crystals, except that it is not simple to design, and even more difficult to fabricate. Photonic crystals are a 3D extension of the better known distributed Bragg reflectors. So the crystals need a periodic structure, to reflect light. However, it is not simple to make a structure that reflects light for all possible incidence directions and wavelengths.
The MIT Photonic bands package (MPB)- see **broken link removed** is on unix, but it can be installed on windows too (i did it, using cygwin).
This program is useful for gettintg the band diagram of an arbitrary photonic crystal.