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  1. Basics of ground fault interrupters

    By Lee Teschler, Exeutive Editor EEWorldonline.com

    Ground-fault circuit interrupters (GFCIs) are sometimes also called earth leakage or residual-current circuit breakers. They can sense leakage current to earth ground and interrupt the circuit automatically when leakage current exceeds a predetermined value.
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    A typical way of detecting ground fault currents is through the use of a core-balance protection device. Here hot (sometimes ...
  2. Top 10 Electronics Inventions

    By Chris Francis
    (originally appeared on EEWorldonline)

    I don't mean the transistor radio or mobile phone, but electronic devices and circuits that have been significant and enduring. Some are not necessarily "inventions", depending on how you define an invention, but significant designs, devices or techniques. It will depend on your area of interest (and age). You might think the GaAsFET was the most significant invention (or creation), or the thermionic triode. ...
  3. Dimming LEDs

    By Bill Schweber

    As the use of LEDs for area lighting has grown dramatically, with both the use of LED-based replacement bulbs as well as LED-based fixtures for new construction (called luminaires in the trade), the issue of dimming these LEDs becomes more critical. LEDs require a very different technique for dimming than the conventional legacy incandescent bulb. The dimming technique differs greatly if the LED is being used in a retrofit installation that already has an incandescent ...
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  4. How to power and configure LEDs

    By Bill Schweber

    LEDs – light-emitting diodes – have largely supplanted other sources of light in many applications. They are used in applications ranging from small on/off power indicators, to small and large alphanumeric displays, to screen backlighting, and even for area and street illumination.

    It’s well known that LEDs are far more efficient than venerable incandescent lighting, and somewhat more efficient than fluorescent-based sources. While there are still specialty ...
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  5. How should grounds and commons be connected to each other?

    by Bill Schweber on Analog IC Tips

    We have already looked briefly at Earth ground (if any), chassis ground, and commons (often misnamed as "grounds"). These do not exist as unrelated connections in a system. The issues related to connecting commons and ground is the subject of countless articles, academic papers, vendor application notes, anecdotes, and even books.

    There are many rules as to how to connect circuit commons to each other, to the chassis ground ...
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