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RF & Microwave Designs

RF and Microwave
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The switching is required in many applications at low as well as at high frequency. RF MEMS switches are the specific micromechanical switches that are designed to operate at RF to mmWave frequencies. MEMS switches usages some mechanical movement to achieve a closed or open circuit in the Radio...
RFID stands for Radio-Frequency Identification. The RFID device provides a unique identifier for that object and just as a bar code or magnetic strip the RFID device must be scanned to retrieve the identifying information. RFID System Working Principal (details in Book "Practical Microstrip...
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The helix antenna is a travelling wave antenna, which means the current travels along the antenna and the phase varies continuously. Helix antennas (also commonly called helical antennas) invented by John Kraus give a circular polarized wave. Helix antennas are referred to as axial-mode helical...
In many applications pertaining to missile, satellite, spacecraft and aircraft a directive antenna mounted on a curved body is required. Conforming the antenna to the surface save space and is often essential for structural reasons. An antenna that conforms to a surface whose shape is determined...
Bluetooth is a wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short distances (using short-wavelength radio transmissions in the ISM band from 2400–2480 MHz) from fixed and mobile devices, creating personal area networks (PANs) with high levels of security. Created by telecom vendor...
The Emergence of Power Integrity Analysis As the speed of the data signal increases, many reasons including power supply noise lead to the degradation of the high-speed signals. In low power high-speed digital interfaces, it is crucial to characterize the whole system power supply in order to...
The desirable features of antenna for Airborne SAR applications include shaped radiation pattern and wide bandwidth capability, good cross polarization isolation and high power capability. Shaped radiation across the track improves the target dynamic range and compensates the requirement of STC...
Antenna modeling in smart phone devices, using electromagnetic simulation software, has improved significantly by allowing the simulation of the antenna behavior in complex environments surrounding the antenna. Thus, current electromagnetic software allows the simulation of handheld antennas...
EMC within electronic components has become an increasingly important issue for embedded designers to contend with. As system frequencies and the need for lower supply voltages increase, the end application becomes more and more vulnerable to the negative affects of EMI. These electrical...
To simulate a cell phone antenna to study the effect of the radiation on organisms, a simulation to evaluate cell phone antenna in the presence of a human body, with particular emphasis on the head and hand is carried out. In accordance with IEEE standards, such as 1528, the Standard...
Fractal’ term was first coined by Benoit Mandelbrot in 1983 to classify the structure whose dimensions were not whole numbers. One of the properties of fractals geometry is that it can have an infinite length while fitting in a finite volume. The radiation characteristic of any electromagnetic...
Periodic arrangement of dielectric or magnetic materials that result in the formation of stop bands No surface waves can propagate in the EBG structure ( a form of Metamaterial) inside this frequency band gap Metamaterial are engineered media that have a negative refractive index (Negative...
SIW technology is essentially a hybrid of microstrip and dielectric-filled waveguide (DFW) technologies. Starting with a PCB substrate, top and bottom metal layers provide two of the waveguide walls. Then, two parallel rows of vias are added, forming the side walls of the waveguide. Figure 1...
Microstrip Array Antenna and it’s Application The antenna plays a very important role in determining the overall system performance of airborne as well as space borne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems. The basic driving force for frequency and polarization selection of an SAR system...
Fifth generation (5G) wireless communication is next major phase of mobile communications standards beyond the current LTE-Advanced. In order to meet 5G faster speed (1-10 Gbps), millimeter wave frequency band has been recommended for 5G wireless communication. Ka band has been targeted for...
Microstrip Array Antenna and it’s Application Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is widely used as an efficient tool for remote sensing and mapping by Aerospace industries. The desirable features of antenna for Airborne SAR applications include shaped radiation pattern and wide bandwidth...

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