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There are many trends exhibited by some research groups:
1. multiple or variable voltage supplies (transistor-level)
2. application transformations that infer differentiations at the system level
e.g. the memory subsystem organization and the update rules for these memories. (RTL and system level)
3. adiabatic switching (transistor level)
4. operation of MOS transistors at the SUBTHRESHOLD REGION. Where the current-law is exponential.
Operating current at the subthreshold are in the region of: few pA- few nA which are 2-5 orders
of magnitude lower than saturation or linear region.