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80C51 doesn't have internal program memory so it can't be programmed ..
If you want to us it you have to add 74373 latch and external EPROM (EEPROM) with the code in it.
Much better options are 87C51, 89C51 or others .. These derivatives have internal OTP/EPROM or Flesh and some of them can be programmed "in circuit", for some you will need a programmer controlled by a PC through serial or parallel port ..
80c51 is a good chip it have built in memory 32K which mean u no need external memory ROM and with erase cycle 100k.
To use the 80c51 in the right way so u have to make sure how many input and output u want in ur project first. U have to make sure the internal architecture in this microcontroller. Then the instruction set (the command for program).
After write the program, transfer it into hex code by using the assembler.
Finally burn it into 80c51 by using the programmer.:|