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Every component has variations, or tolerances, also known as "production spread". Obviously, these tolerances will affect the circuit's performance. So you have to come up with some solutions to compensate for these and ensure circuit performance. These are the "mitigation techniques".
What do you do? It depends on the circuit and the performace required. In some cases you simply need to specify tighter tolerances to make sure the performance is always met. If that is not possible, then you can consider adjustment, if possible, such as in the case of analog circuits. You have to weigh the pros and cons, though: adjustment cost vs. performance, reliability, etc.
In other cases you can find other solutions, such as software calibration/ compensation, etc. These are all "mitigation techniques".