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Front-end means it could be any schematic, RTL coding, RTL Verification & etc...
Back-end means implementing the design in terms of transistor with std cells.This invloves floorplan,placement,CTS, routing & DRC/LVS..
Anything to do with the logic, algorithms etc comes in frontend.
If you are designing a Digital Design, Then RTL coding, Verification forms the front End.(Ex MicroProcessor). Anything that refers to the Physical design of the chip,
Floorplanning, Place& Route, Clock tree Synthesis, Layout, DRC, LVS, Parasitic Extraction evrything comes is usually called as backend.
If you are doing analog/RF/DSP Designs, transitor level Schematic design and Simulation, Matlab etc forms your frontend. (Ex, OpAmp, ADCs etc)
Custom layout, DRC, LVS, Extracion, DFM everything becomes a part of back end.
If u r new, Think which one is of your interest and decide accordinly. and enhance your skills slowly in that.