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this answer is out of the topic questioned, but still related to the function of the capacitor. i've heard that capacitor also can be used as memory, if the charge present to the capacitor, it would be recognized as bit 1, and if no charge inside the capacitor, it's mean bit 0. i've heard that internal capacitance of the FET can be used for this purpose, is it right?
Nearley all the capacitors are used to remove any noise switching glitches so as to keep all the chips on ther motherboard running smoothley. The power supply is well regulated and smoothed but you still need the extra decopling next to any cmos and ttl to stop random noise .
Capacitors are used for may purposes like dc blocking, ac coupling, filtering, timing circuits. they are also used with circuits for reseting or generatinbg clocks. when a capacitor charges and discharges it can generate awave of desired shape and frequency.
its used for stoping DC or for timings ,combining with mosfet transistors which acts like switch can discharge capacitor when fet switch it to circuit path ,if u use it with resistor both generates time constant and you get diferent shapes bec charge is obstructed by resistor and potencial on cap is build slowly or faster youll get Time constant =R*C or something with time in seconds which you can compare to basic caracteristics graph which consists of 5 points to which cap is fully charged so if TC is small it will not get charge to full and bly bla bla
The capacitor's function is to store electricity, or electrical energy.
The capacitor also functions as a filter, passing alternating current (AC), and blocking direct current (DC).When using a capacitor, you must pay attention to the maximum voltage which can be used. This is the "breakdown voltage." The breakdown voltage depends on the kind of capacitor being used. You must be especially careful with electrolytic capacitors because the breakdown voltage is comparatively low. The breakdown voltage of electrolytic capacitors is displayed as Working Voltage.
The breakdown voltage is the voltage that when exceeded will cause the dielectric (insulator) inside the capacitor to break down and conduct. When this happens, the failure can be catastrophic.
Caps function as filters and they hold the i/p voltage for a duration in sample and hold circuits.
As far as using them for storage is concerned they are used in the form of MOSFETS in the wafer not discrete capacitors