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Open mean you have infinite impedance, high voltage & zero current.
And Short means high current,zero voltage & zero resistance.
This are two extreme conditions used to caliberate.
this concept is used in smith chart.
It is simple....u need to calculate the phase on the basis of reflection coeff for the above two cases.
e.g for open ckt...Zl is infinite ...so reflection coeff=1 phase zero...
for short ckt it is -1. So phase is 180 shifted for reflected wave....
Absolute magnitude for both cases is 1 only...phase u need to mention...phase in exponential form...
same is the procedure for other cases where load is reactive or resistive etc..