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"proximity" is an English word meaning "nearness" - being close to something. See a dictionary for exact definition. It is often relative what is "near" - for example you may have a shop in your proximity, meaning for instance withing a walking distance, or a hard disk head is flying in proximity to the disk surface - maybe just some fractions of a micrometer. Got an idea what the word means?
In electronics you have likely heard of "proximity switches," and "proximity detectors." Those are sensors which do not need physical contact to operate. And, yes, many of those work by magnetic principles, but they may be also based on something else (capacitance for example).
If you are looking at a proximity sensor ... your best bet would be to begin with a simple IR Ranging module made by sharp. There are several variations some give an serial data output indicating how close an object is and others give a voltage proportional to the distance. You could try making your own with a 40kHz clock to pulse some ir leds and a ir receiver module. Then you can count how many pulses sent get received (simplest way is to make a very simple rc circuit and measure the voltage out. You could also try going about and getting a polaroid ultrasonic sensor but it gets a little more costly
Thank you friends....I understand.
I have one more question I see a proximity system in a company there
are small tools on the walls.There are small magnets arranged differently in these tools.When a guard is come with a reader or a proximity sensor to one of these tools on the walls and pushes a button then this reader shows on the screen which tool is readed.I mean differently arranged magnets represents the ID of the door or wall.
Anyone can direct me for resources or links on the web for more details of design of such a system? or a proximity detectors?
Note:I will search the google....