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May be you are interesting in solving problems of Digital Signal Processing using Matlab and how to implement solutions on a Digital Signal Processor (DSP). If this is the case a good book is the Digital Signal Procesing by Proakis & Manolakis. Other good book is Digital Signal Processing Using MATLAB by Vinay K. Ingle (Author), John G. Proakis (Author)
There is a toolbox in matlab for digital signal processing, if you read the help, you'll find that there are several references and examples of filters, syntetizers and tools for analysis and design.
Basically, the DSP implements difference equations in a very efficient way due to its hardware. Once you have understood the theory you'll know that every digital system can be characterized by a diference equation, so what you do when you implement a solution in a DSP is to solve a difference equation.
Yet another good book on DSP is Sanjit. K. Mitra (TMH) a quite comprehensive and athouritative, which includes heaps and heaps of MATLAB® codes. More so those codes can be downloaded for free. I do not have the link with me right now, whereas, a google run can be benificial..!! The best way to learn any tool (and more so in case of MATLAB®) is to use it. If one is familier with C it becomes still more easier....!! student version of the tool is free for download from it's official site - MathWorks™