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Most voltage multipliers have a final output stage which is a peak detector (like your schematic). Many voltage multipliers are made from Villard cells, that is, diode-capacitor pairs which act as charge-pumps.
The Dickson type is made from one or more H-bridges (using transistors or mosfets). These steer current (similar to diodes), and so a diode does not always appear in the final output stage.