Welcome to our site! EDAboard.com is an international Electronics Discussion Forum focused on EDA software, circuits, schematics, books, theory, papers, asic, pld, 8051, DSP, Network, RF, Analog Design, PCB, Service Manuals... and a whole lot more! To participate you need to register. Registration is free. Click here to register now.
Figure C has a memory cell made from 2 NOR gates.
The op amps create a window comparator.
I'm guessing the rightmost section creates reliably uniform pulses, identical amplitude and identical slew rate.
Figure A appears to output PWM (or else PFM) based on how incoming waveforms overlap or don't overlap. Where numerous simple logic gates are cascaded it becomes hard to be sure whether they perform the job of a more complex gate, or whether they invert a signal to make it compatible with the following stage.
R1 R2 R3 create a voltage divider which provides reference voltages. I think their value can be higher ohms, say 1k.
R9 is 100 ohms. M1 turns on thus providing some resistance to ground. The node between them feeds C6 and U2 input. If you want to create a middle range of voltage swing, then it requires M1 must turn on so its resistance becomes 100 ohms (and less). It may not do this easily. I think R9 could probably be 1k.
I did some internet search. It seems you are right.
They even recommend to short circuit unused outputs to GND. Good luck for real life circuits.
My personal opinion:
* simulators should work like real world devices work ... most perfectly
* it's not unusual that one uses a 4 input logic IC but uses only 3 inputs..then one simply has to give valid input levels to the unused inputs. This is real life and makes sense. Giving "GND" to an unused AND input makes the circuit useless..but the simulator is happy.
Especially for unexperienced users simulators are very helpful, enabling tests on circuits without smoke and awful smell.
But they were thought "wrong" usage. I see simulators work even when power is not supplied to the ICs, clock inputs not connected,
Imagine: Teach pupils in school that 3 x 4 = 12, but the calculator gives a different result...