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Forgot to mention that data is output from uC through UART. As far as I know, for RS232 cables, length of the cable should be very short in order to operate at 1Mbps. For USB, maximum cable length is 5m. However, I have read that there are some USB active extension cables, which have built-in repeaters or something. However, I am not sure whether it will provide a reliable communication link between computer and microcontroller. Does anyone have any experience in using USB extension cables with microcontrollers?
What about RS485? You can get RS232 to RS485 converters which will handle 1Mbit/sec (e.g. Amplicon 485HF9) which plug directly into an existing serial port, or you can get the bare RS485 transceivers (e.g. Maxim MAX3080 family) for integrating onto your own PCB.