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Blog entries by anilkrpandey

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The switching is required in many applications at low as well as at high frequency. RF MEMS switches are the specific micromechanical switches that are designed to operate at RF to mmWave frequencies. MEMS switches usages some mechanical movement to achieve a closed or open circuit in the Radio...
RFID stands for Radio-Frequency Identification. The RFID device provides a unique identifier for that object and just as a bar code or magnetic strip the RFID device must be scanned to retrieve the identifying information. RFID System Working Principal (details in Book "Practical Microstrip...
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The helix antenna is a travelling wave antenna, which means the current travels along the antenna and the phase varies continuously. Helix antennas (also commonly called helical antennas) invented by John Kraus give a circular polarized wave. Helix antennas are referred to as axial-mode helical...
In many applications pertaining to missile, satellite, spacecraft and aircraft a directive antenna mounted on a curved body is required. Conforming the antenna to the surface save space and is often essential for structural reasons. An antenna that conforms to a surface whose shape is determined...
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Time Domain Reflectometry is the analysis of conductor lines (interconnects)by sending a pulsed signal into the conductor and then examining the reflection of that pulse. A TDR transmits a short rise time pulse along the conductor. If the conductor is of a uniform impedance and is properly...
Bluetooth is a wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short distances (using short-wavelength radio transmissions in the ISM band from 2400–2480 MHz) from fixed and mobile devices, creating personal area networks (PANs) with high levels of security. Created by telecom vendor...
The Emergence of Power Integrity Analysis As the speed of the data signal increases, many reasons including power supply noise lead to the degradation of the high-speed signals. In low power high-speed digital interfaces, it is crucial to characterize the whole system power supply in order to...
The desirable features of antenna for Airborne SAR applications include shaped radiation pattern and wide bandwidth capability, good cross polarization isolation and high power capability. Shaped radiation across the track improves the target dynamic range and compensates the requirement of STC...
Antenna modeling in smart phone devices, using electromagnetic simulation software, has improved significantly by allowing the simulation of the antenna behavior in complex environments surrounding the antenna. Thus, current electromagnetic software allows the simulation of handheld antennas...
What is ESD? Electrostatic discharge(ESD) is the sudden and momentary electric current that flows between two objects at different electrical potentials caused by direct contact or induced by an electrostatic field.An Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) strike is a constant threat to device...
EMC within electronic components has become an increasingly important issue for embedded designers to contend with. As system frequencies and the need for lower supply voltages increase, the end application becomes more and more vulnerable to the negative affects of EMI. These electrical...
orrugated horn antenna has parallel slots or grooves, small compared with a wavelength, covering the inside surface of the horn, transverse to the axis. Corrugated horns have wider bandwidth and smaller side lobes and cross-polarization, and are widely used as feed horns for satellite dishes and...
A Rotary Joint (RJ) is a wide spread microwave device that is used to change the direction of microwave propagation between two waveguides by rotating one with respect to another. Rotary joints find many applications in radar and satellite earth stations for functions such as polarization...
To simulate a cell phone antenna to study the effect of the radiation on organisms, a simulation to evaluate cell phone antenna in the presence of a human body, with particular emphasis on the head and hand is carried out. In accordance with IEEE standards, such as 1528, the Standard...
A tracking system in earth station antenna tracks the motion of the satellite. Especially in the case of Low-earth-orbit (LEO) satellites, that appears for the small time window to earth station antenna, it’s necessary to communicate with satellite effectively in that short duration of time and...
Fractal’ term was first coined by Benoit Mandelbrot in 1983 to classify the structure whose dimensions were not whole numbers. One of the properties of fractals geometry is that it can have an infinite length while fitting in a finite volume. The radiation characteristic of any electromagnetic...
Planar antennas, including microstrip and printed antennas, metal-plate antennas, ceramic chip and dielectric resonator antennas have a low profile hence, these antennas have extensive applications in mobile systems (such as 900/1800 MHz bands), wireless local area networks (WLANs, such as...
Feed network for microwave applications is a major design concern in terms of complexity and size. There is various kind of feeding network of an array antenna. Feed network depend on antenna type and geometry. Passive Antenna Array (a) Corporate Feed Network : For a passive antenna, most...
Periodic arrangement of dielectric or magnetic materials that result in the formation of stop bands No surface waves can propagate in the EBG structure ( a form of Metamaterial) inside this frequency band gap Metamaterial are engineered media that have a negative refractive index (Negative...
The role of impedance transformer is crucial in RF microwave input/output impedance matching and antenna feed network design. Impedance transformer are primarily used as bridging network between two component with different input impedances. Quarter-wave impedance transformer or λ/4...
SIW technology is essentially a hybrid of microstrip and dielectric-filled waveguide (DFW) technologies. Starting with a PCB substrate, top and bottom metal layers provide two of the waveguide walls. Then, two parallel rows of vias are added, forming the side walls of the waveguide. Figure 1...
Microstrip Array Antenna and it’s Application The antenna plays a very important role in determining the overall system performance of airborne as well as space borne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems. The basic driving force for frequency and polarization selection of an SAR system...
Signal integrity (SI) addresses two key aspects in high-speed digital designs: signal timing and quality. SI analysis aims to ensure signals reach their destination in good condition. In a system, signals travel through various kinds of interconnections (e.g., from chip to package, package to RF...
Fifth generation (5G) wireless communication is next major phase of mobile communications standards beyond the current LTE-Advanced. In order to meet 5G faster speed (1-10 Gbps), millimeter wave frequency band has been recommended for 5G wireless communication. Ka band has been targeted for...
Microstrip Array Antenna and it’s Application Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is widely used as an efficient tool for remote sensing and mapping by Aerospace industries. The desirable features of antenna for Airborne SAR applications include shaped radiation pattern and wide bandwidth...

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