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Jitter is also known as phase noise, it is simply fluctuations in when the clock edges arrive.
Bounce is several things, it depends wheter you mean bounce on a switch or ground bounce. But essentially it is a unwanted changes in logic level. i.e bounce on a switch would be a single switch press resulting in many very rapid on off switches. Where as ground bounce would be fluctuations in the ground level triggering a sweitch in logic levels.
Ripple is simply ripple. Rectify a sine wave add a smoothing capacitor and you will see ripple.
Ripple usually means that a signal is supposed to be a DC signal, but it has some kind of AC component. Like when you put a sine wave through a rectifier and your capacitor is not large enough. Ripple is usually used to describe this effect on a power supply. Ripple is deterministic. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ripple_(electrical)
A glitch is usually an erroneous bit level or two. It can be caused by poor design, fault etc.
Jitter can cause a glitch, if say a late clock edge causes a high level not to last long enough on a flip flops input.
Bounce, well it depends on the type of bounce, but ground-bounce can cause a glitch.
Ripple, if on Vcc and of greatenoung magnitude could also cause a glitch.
I suppose the answer to your question, is that the jitter/bounce/ripple are problems which if a circuit is not designed properly to deal with them, or eliminate them, (although you can't eliminate jitter, only minimise it) can lead to glitches.