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TCP/IP protocol cluster and its data unit

TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) refers to a cluster of protocols that can transmit information between multiple different networks.

TCP/IP protocol cluster

The TCP/IP protocol does not only refer to the two protocols TCP and IP, but refers to a protocol cluster composed of FTP, SMTP, TCP, UDP, IP and other protocols. It is only because the TCP protocol and the IP protocol are the most representative in the TCP/IP protocol, it is called the TCP/IP protocol.

Data unit

Packets, frames, data packets, segments, and messages.

The above five terms are all used to express the unit of data, and they are roughly distinguished as follows:

①package can be said to be an omnipotent term;

②frames are used to represent the unit of packets in the data link layer;

③ Data packets are the units of hierarchical packets above the network layer such as IP and UDP;

The segment represents the information in the TCP data stream;

⑤ Message refers to the unit of data in the application protocol.

In each layer, a header is attached to the sent data, which contains the necessary information for that layer, such as the destination address sent and protocol-related information.Usually, the information provided for the protocol is the header of the packet, and the content to be sent is data.From the perspective of the next layer, all packets received from the previous layer are considered to be the data of this layer.


In addition, you also need to understand IP, MAC, and port.

IP address: Used to identify interconnected hosts and routers in a TCP/IP network.

MAC: Identify different computers in the same link.

Port: The port number is used to identify different applications communicating in the same computer.Therefore, it is also called the program address.

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