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Not sure about specifically what kind of resampling topic you are looking at.
Resample can refer to aligning signals that need to be syncronized. For example if you have two independent async digitized audio signal that need to be combined into a single data stream you need to resample one or both to get symbol/bit alignment to allow combining into a single data stream.
Taken further, interpolation resampling increase the data rate and resolution of a digitized signal for processing purposes. Interpolation is a topic all to itself with many schemes from simple linear interpolation (creating a sample half way between two incoming samples) to complex sliding sinX/X Fourier transform series like used in many digital storage scopes to allow a lower physical ADC sample and storage rate to be accurately expanded, up to a factor of ten, to display what appears to be a continuous waveform on the scope screen.