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There is a lot specialazed uC for DSP tasks - for example ADSP-21XX , TMS320C54XX. They calculate simple FIR filter with single instruction. Other big advantage of these DSP chips is that they have very good overflow handling algorithm and conseqently is "dificult" to lose information. Just look at the "ADSP218X instruction set reference" from analog.com ( chapter 3- software examples))