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In a current transformer, the primary is usually one turn
of thick wire or buss bar and the secondary is often
1000 turns or more of magnet wire. A ferrite core magnetically
couples the two. Thus, a large current in the
primary turn creates a small current but large voltage in
the secondary winding.
For example, assume a current transformer with a 1000
turn secondary. A 10A current in the primary winding
induces a 10mA current in the secondary. This current
is made to flow through a so-called “burden” resistor,
usually 10Ω to 20Ω. Assuming a 20Ω burden, our 10A
current thus produces a 200mV signal in the secondary.