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A range of dc–dc switch-mode converters are used to convert an unregulated dc
input to a regulated dc output at a required voltage level. They achieve the voltage
regulation by varying the on–off or time duty ratio of the switching element.
There are two main applications. One is to provide a dc power supply with
adjustable output voltage, for general use. This application often requires the use
of an isolating transformer. The other main application of dc–dc converters is to
transfer power from a fixed dc supply, which may be rectified ac, to the armature
of a dc motor in the form of adjustable direct voltage.
Three basic types of dc–dc converters are