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  1. #1
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    Help reading schematics - artificial ventilator for someone

    Hi all,

    I am very new to electronics, I am building a ventilator made by someone here https://github.com/jcl5m1/ventilator
    The reason I am building this is that I have someone very closer who may need a ventilator if infected before the vaccine for COVID-19 is available to all.

    The Arduino code and compilation work fine and it is uploaded into the NANO v3 with no problem.

    I am lost in how to put things together and I have a couple of questions:

    - When it says GND in different parts of the schematics, what to do? should I wire them all together?
    - When it says C1 10u, what should I use there

    The ventilator have different parts:
    - The blower
    - The Arduino Nano v3
    - The BLDC Electronic Speed Controller
    - The DC Power 12v 5A, is 5A = to 0.5A I can read in the power adaptor box?
    - SW1 BUTTON, what should I use there?

    Here in images is my progress so far, however I don't know where should the blower be connected? is a mystery for me...

    The schematics:
    Click image for larger version. 

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    My progress:
    Click image for larger version. 

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  2. #2
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    Re: Help reading schematics - artificial ventilator for someone

    Hi,

    Usually signal refer to GND (if not otherwise stated), thus usually all GND that belong to the same system need to be connected.
    But in detail it depends on the whole application.

    When it says C1 10u, what should I use there
    What is unclear? If it says 10u, then use a 10u capacitor..

    - The DC Power 12v 5A, is 5A = to 0.5A I can read in the power adaptor box?
    What does this mean? Please clarify. What exactly is written on the power box? What power does your application need?

    SW1 BUTTON, what should I use there?
    What answer do you expect? Size as you like, color as you like, mounting type as you like....

    I don't know where should the blower be connected? is a mystery for me...
    How many options do you see?
    BLDC is a type of motor .... a blower needs a motor ... a speed controller needs to be connected to the motor ... a motor is drawn as symbol with an "M" ...
    Still unclear?

    On your schematic there are some pins not connected, maybe they are mandatory. GND, 3V3, 5V, Vin...maybe others... read the documentation.

    Klaus
    Please don´t contact me via PM, because there is no time to respond to them. No friend requests. Thank you.

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  3. #3
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    Re: Help reading schematics - artificial ventilator for someone

    i am surprised there doesn't seem to be a parts list

    your best opportunity to help is to check into one of the open source groups consisting of
    doctors, engineers, etc etc, rather than this home project

    https://simulation.health.ufl.edu/te...lator-project/

    https://opensourceventilator.ie/

    https://e-vent.mit.edu/

  4. #4
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    Re: Help reading schematics - artificial ventilator for someone

    Quote Originally Posted by Blitzey View Post
    ....
    When it says GND in different parts of the schematics, what to do? should I wire them all together?
    They are the same points..

    When it says C1 10u, what should I use there
    An electrolytic capacitor.

    The DC Power 12v 5A, is 5A = to 0.5A I can read in the power adaptor box?
    It is 5A capacity adapter and not 0.5A wall adapter.
    SW1 BUTTON, what should I use there?
    A switch .

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    Re: Help reading schematics - artificial ventilator for someone

    Thank you all, I will work with the info provided and will update the thread for someone else in future.

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    Re: Help reading schematics - artificial ventilator for someone

    Hi all, I have put together the complete circuit making sure the GND's are together, included the capacitor and the switch.

    I only have one doubt about the MOTOR, the examples I see everywhere are motors with 3 cables, mine only comes with one, I think this is called BRUSHED.

    So I am unsure how to wire if I only have 2 cables coming out of my motor so I have done this:
    Wired the A and C cables from the BLDC Electronic Speed Controller to the motor, leaving the one in the middle disconnected, does that makes sense?
    Click image for larger version. 

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    I found this on the Internet, however, either all images on the Internet are very bad or I am the one that can't understand pretty obvious things...
    Click image for larger version. 

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  7. #7
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    Re: Help reading schematics - artificial ventilator for someone

    I only have one doubt about the MOTOR, the examples I see everywhere are motors with 3 cables, mine only comes with one, I think this is called BRUSHED.
    You need a brushless DC motor that come with three wires. The three wires should be connected to the three fat blue wires (marked A B C on the PCB).

    Your arduino needs 5V DC.

    Anyway, I do not know about the ESC unit; does it supply regulated 5V to be connected to the arduino??

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    Re: Help reading schematics - artificial ventilator for someone

    Quote Originally Posted by c_mitra View Post
    You need a brushless DC motor that come with three wires. The three wires should be connected to the three fat blue wires (marked A B C on the PCB).

    Your arduino needs 5V DC.

    Anyway, I do not know about the ESC unit; does it supply regulated 5V to be connected to the arduino??
    The circuit allowed me to power the arduino through the BLDC Speed controller, I am powering the BLDC with a 12v 5A power adaptor.
    I hope the BLDC is powering the Arduino with what it requires. :/

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    Re: Help reading schematics - artificial ventilator for someone

    Hi,

    I see everywhere are motors with 3 cables, mine only comes with one, I think this is called BRUSHED.
    Impossible.
    No electric (and no electronic) device can work with one wire only. It needs at least two wires.
    Most so called "BLDC" motore come without electronics and have at least three wires.
    In this case the "DC" in "BLDC" is misleading. Without electronics it is an AC motor.


    So I am unsure how to wire if I only have 2 cables coming out of my motor so I have done this:
    Wired the A and C cables from the BLDC Electronic Speed Controller to the motor, leaving the one in the middle disconnected, does that makes sense?
    Now there are two wires. What now?
    If you have a motor with two wires only, then most probably it is no BLDC motor. Don't connect your (non BLDC) motor to a BLDC motor controller.

    My recommendation:
    Before you start designing an application you need to know the requirements.
    Otherwise you will come to situations like now: the speed controller does not fit to your motor ... and can't work.

    Klaus
    Please don´t contact me via PM, because there is no time to respond to them. No friend requests. Thank you.

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    Re: Help reading schematics - artificial ventilator for someone

    Quote Originally Posted by KlausST View Post
    Hi,


    Impossible.
    No electric (and no electronic) device can work with one wire only. It needs at least two wires.
    Most so called "BLDC" motore come without electronics and have at least three wires.
    In this case the "DC" in "BLDC" is misleading. Without electronics it is an AC motor.



    Now there are two wires. What now?
    If you have a motor with two wires only, then most probably it is no BLDC motor. Don't connect your (non BLDC) motor to a BLDC motor controller.

    My recommendation:
    Before you start designing an application you need to know the requirements.
    Otherwise you will come to situations like now: the speed controller does not fit to your motor ... and can't work.

    Klaus
    My bad, I meant to say my Motor comes with 2 wires, the BLDC comes with 3.

    The Materials I am following are here https://github.com/jcl5m1/ventilator
    Under Materials, the Motor is a blower and the project seems to work with no problem connected to the BLDC, hence my confusion.

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  11. #11
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    Re: Help reading schematics - artificial ventilator for someone

    Hi,

    The circuit allowed me to power the arduino through the BLDC Speed controller, I am powering the BLDC with a 12v 5A power adaptor.
    I hope the BLDC is powering the Arduino with what it requires. :/
    "Hope" is no good partner with designing electronics.
    Knowledge is much better. You get knowledge by reading datasheets. And there are many good informations in the internet, too.
    "Good" informations are from companies, device manufacturers, universities. Hobbyists projects often are not good, they often are wrong or incomplete.

    You may find "reading though datasheets" annoying, but every professional needs to do this, every day, many documents.
    No professional can answer whether your BLDC controller can supply the arduino with power ... without reading the datasheet.
    So either one of us or you needs to read the datasheet. I recommend that you start with it...

    Klaus
    Please don´t contact me via PM, because there is no time to respond to them. No friend requests. Thank you.

  12. #12
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    Re: Help reading schematics - artificial ventilator for someone

    The circuit allowed me to power the arduino through the BLDC Speed controller, I am powering the BLDC with a 12v 5A power adaptor.
    Well, that means the ESC can power the arduino but have you programmed the arduino?

    Did you connect a three phase BLDC motor to the three fat blue wire? Did the arduino control the BLDC speed?

    You will need other sensors as well to be connected to the arduino.

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    Re: Help reading schematics - artificial ventilator for someone

    Yeah, I did read all, I think the info provided by the guy is not clear nor complete.

    Thanks for your help guys.


    /7/

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    Re: Help reading schematics - artificial ventilator for someone

    Quote Originally Posted by c_mitra View Post
    Well, that means the ESC can power the arduino but have you programmed the arduino?

    Did you connect a three phase BLDC motor to the three fat blue wire? Did the arduino control the BLDC speed?

    You will need other sensors as well to be connected to the arduino.
    Arduino is programmed, yes, compiled and uploaded, no issues here.

    Yes, connected the motor, however the motor comes with 2 cables, the BLDC comes with 3, I am investigating.

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    Re: Help reading schematics - artificial ventilator for someone

    It is confirmed, I need a brushless Motor. I am getting one tomorrow and will update this post.

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    Re: Help reading schematics - artificial ventilator for someone

    The project does not use a motor. Instead it uses a blower with motor and face mask from a CPAC machine. You did not say anything about the face mask so maybe you are making a fan to blow the virus all around?
    The Project says it is dangerous and might blow up (rupture) the patient's lungs!
    How do you direct the air into the lungs without inflating and rupturing the stomach?

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    Re: Help reading schematics - artificial ventilator for someone

    You will need to read properly the links I provided.

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    Re: Help reading schematics - artificial ventilator for someone

    I looked into this when coronavirus was first being talked about, even found a DIY design which looked interesting. I read some into hospital ventilator designs. When this disease takes hold the efficiency of the lungs to get oxygen into the blood drops dramatically. Ventilation with air on its own doesn't help much because you need pure oxygen since the lungs only take a finite volume of air. Ventilators then need bellows to accurately control how much air and oxygen is pushed in and if you over cook it the patient suffers or dies. The other part of the problem is exhaled air from an infected patient has to be dealt with. You don't want people around breathing in the contaminated air.

    The DIY design I read dealt with the bellows pressure side to deliver a consistent (air) volume to the lungs, but there was no oxygen or waste breath management. Of course we aren't talking about sedating a patient and inserting a trach. tube! My conclusion was DIY could only consider pure oxygen mixing with air delivered at the correct pressure and volume and beyond most persons means to do it safely. I wouldn't want to kill my grandpa!

  19. #19
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    Re: Help reading schematics - artificial ventilator for someone

    only consider pure oxygen mixing with air delivered at the correct pressure and volume and beyond most persons means to do it safely.
    .TRUE.

    So you need a pump or bellows or fan or whatsoever that can blow "periodically" air mixed with oxygen.

    It must have also some sensor for oxygen- to figure out how much oxygen is being input and also a sensor for carbon-dioxide- to figure out how much oxygen is being used.

    It must also keep a sync with the natural breathing. But exhaled air must be ventilated.

    Under normal condition, haemoglobin gets saturated (well, about 90%) with oxygen from room air.

    If you increase oxygen proportion in air, that 90% will go up to 95 or even 98%.

    But the problem is suction: the fellow is unable to breathe. Your gadget is supposed to help the chap breathe.

    It is not difficult but you need to pay attention to details.

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    Re: Help reading schematics - artificial ventilator for someone

    i have a friend in the hospital, intubated, on a ventilator

    when he started fighting with the ventilator, by trying to breath on his own, they upped the sedative
    the patient has to let the ventilator do the breathing

    like i said in post 3, your best opportunity to help is to check into one of the open
    source groups consisting of doctors, engineers, etc etc, rather than this home project


    https://simulation.health.ufl.edu/te...lator-project/

    https://opensourceventilator.ie/

    https://e-vent.mit.edu/

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