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In Xilinx FPGAs, a bank is a group of I/O pins that share a common resource such as one power supply or one output current reference. It makes the FPGA easier to manufacture (less expensive), and it may reduce the number of device pins, but it also restricts your choice of programmable I/O types depending on which pins you choose.
I understand it. But in FPGA, are there more than one power supply? Would you like to explain it in detail? Now I understand why we use banks in FPGA according to your answer, but I don't understand how the bank works in the FPGA. Thanks in advance.
Different FPGAs have different bank architectures. Some FPGAs don't have any banks. Some FPGAs have multiple power supplies, others have only one. Banks and power supplies are not necessary related to each other. You must carefully read the data sheet for your specific FPGA.
Thanks for your help. I will post silly question again. In my opinion, we connect a device to only a voltage source. For example, a specific device may have input and output ports, clock, voltage, ground, etc. Why are there so many power source?
well this actually pertains to the layout of the IC, be it an FPGA, ASIC or Microprocessor. one thing to keep in mind is that the "power source" is the same. at micro and nano levels its always better to have more VCC and GND pads.
there are many situations due to which IC designers have to provide more than one VCC pin. sometimes ICs require both 3.3V and 2.5V power supplies. the 2.5 V might be for the Core and 3.3V for the I/O.
furthermore, if the IC has both analog and digital portions, their grounds will be separate.
now why is it that for a 3.3V there are many pins. why not a single pin for the 3.3V and a single pin for the 2.5V??? well, the reason is that you cant just take 3.3V from a single pad and run it through the whole IC. the resistance between that pad and the last section of the circuit will be great. so the solution is to provide a low resistance path for VCC which is done by having more than one VCC pins.
Thanks for your valuable information. I really appreciate your help. I still have many questions about FPGA. Hope you can continue to help me out. It's very nice that there are so many kind people who are somewhere waiting for helping with my problems.