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# The relation between bps and Hz

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#### toknow

##### Newbie level 3
Can u tell the relation between bps and Hz

#### DenisMark

##### Full Member level 6
bps and Hz

Simple 1 Hz = 2 bps. 1 bit is a half of period.

#### IanP

##### Advanced Member level 7
Re: bps and Hz

I am afraid it is not as trivial as that ..

I try to normalize everything to the SI standard unit for data rate, bps (bits/second) (should it be b/s ?) and the pseudo-standard Mbps (which sometimes mean 1 000 000 bps but other times 1 048 576 bps). Other common units are Bytes/second (Bps or B/s; often incorrectly abbreviated bps; 1 B/s = 8 bps exactly) and Hz (a common 16-bit bus has a frequency of 8 MHz = 64 Mbps; a voice stream digitized by the phone company has a bandwidth of exactly 64 000 bps and roughly 4 KHz). As you can see, converting between Hz and bps is not trivial.
Quoted from:
"bps FAQ (Data Speed FAQ)"
**broken link removed**
Also, search this forum .. there are doesens of posts on this issue ..

Regards,
IanP

#### magnetra

##### Full Member level 5
Re: bps and Hz

Simple 1 Hz = 2 bps. 1 bit is a half of period.
What is the basis of this relation?

M

#### jhbbunch

##### Full Member level 4
Re: bps and Hz

Hz is Cycles/Second. It is the frequency of a periodic waveform. BPS or bits/second is the binary, digital rate of transmission of data. The BPS transmission mechanism can be frequency shifting, phase shifting, voltage shifting or any kind of shifting you can think of, if it is based in some kind of physical reality(smoke puffs per second will do, for example). I believe the Shannon criterion states that you cannot transmit valid binary data at more than 1/2 the frequency of the transmission frequency. The Bytes/Second, or Bytes/Minute or whatever else are just conversion issues and are meaningless to what the difference is between Hz and BPS. The Shannon criterion is a huge issue and is the cornerstone of modern communication systems.

ASHU01GOD

### ASHU01GOD

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#### zolam

##### Member level 5
Re: bps and Hz

keep looking for IANP explanations
they are technical and accurate
the bps is result of a modulation or coding process. according to the used method, the bps could vary.
the hz is a physical unit for the transmitted signal frequency

#### sinu_gowde

##### Full Member level 2
bps and Hz

The difference between Hz (Herz) and bps (bits per second) is both a simple distinction and a complicated one. So I'll try to keep it on the simple side: Hz applies to a clock frequency that is used to modulate the electrical signal on the wire (assuming copper). The higher the rate of modulation (Hz), the more information that can be transmitted per second. It is fundamental to the operation of the communication interface but it doesn't tell the most useful story. In the early days of modems, the rate of modulation was typically referred to as "baud." Baud used to be synonymous with bps – however encoding techniques have evolved considerably and the relationship has changed. Bps is typically different from the modulation rate and is primarily important with respect to data transfer rates.

kdg007

### kdg007

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#### toknow

##### Newbie level 3
Re: bps and Hz

Does this have some relation with Shannon-Hartley theorem
C=B*log(1+S/N)

kdg007

### kdg007

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#### jetset

##### Full Member level 3
Re: bps and Hz

DenisMark said:
Simple 1 Hz = 2 bps. 1 bit is a half of period.

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Hz = cycles per second

Bit Rate = 1/(Tb), Where Tb is the bit duration. In general the minimal clock to transmit at a given Bit Rate, should be at least twice of the bit rate in frequency.

In general form, Symbol Rate is the period symbol, for M-ary digital waveform where:

k = log2(M) Where M are the levels to represent k bits in a symbol.

Tsym = Tbxk That is the symbol period

Symbol Rate = 1/Tsym

Notice that when k=1 , Symbol Rate = Bit Rate

kdg007

### kdg007

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#### Unomano

##### Member level 1
bps and Hz

Relation depends on modulation type you have chosen.

kdg007

### kdg007

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