#### dehati

##### Member level 3

I have 50 copies of my book "Signal Integrity for PCB Designers" available from

my publishers. I am offering these books at price of $25 at amazon under used

books (even though they are new ones).

You may like to purchase these at the discounted price at

https://www.amazon.com/gp/offer-listing/0982136900

I hope that this book is helpful for beginners. The contents are as follows

Table of Contents

1 Introduction.. 4

1.1 Integrity of Point to Point Signal 5

1.2 Timing Relationship between Signals. 6

1.3 Coupling of the traces. 6

1.4 Noise less Power supply. 7

1.5 Electromagnetic Radiation. 7

1.6 PCB Design for High Speed. 7

1.7 Knee Frequency. 12

1.8 Periodic Waves and Fourier Transform.. 12

1.9 Tom and Bob. 16

2 Timing Relationship between Signals. 17

2.1 Setup and Hold Time. 17

2.2 Time and Distance. 18

2.3 Adding Delay Intentionally.. 20

2.4 Common Clock Vs Source Synchronous Clock Scheme. 21

2.5 Incident Clocking. 23

2.6 Implementation. 23

2.7 Length Matching examples - PCI Bus Clocks. 24

2.8 Tom and Bob. 24

2.9 Questions and Answers. 26

3 Resistor and Resistance. 27

3.1 Parasitic Inductance and Capacitance of SMD Resistors. 29

4 Capacitance and Capacitor. 30

4.1 Parallel Plate Capacitor 31

4.2 Impedance of a Capacitor 32

4.3 Capacitance in a Signal Path. 33

4.4 A Real Capacitor 33

4.5 Capacitance per unit length. 34

4.6 Capacitance Per Unit length of a Coaxial Cable. 34

4.7 Capacitance per Unit Length of a Microstrip. 35

4.8 Effective Dielectric Constant 36

4.9 Embedded Microstrip Trace. 37

4.10 Stripline Trace. 38

4.11 2D Field Solver for Calculating Capacitance. 39

4.12 Accuracy of IPC Formula with respect to the 2D Field Solver 40

4.13 Fringe Effect and Capacitance of Combination of structure. 42

4.14 Via Capacitance. 43

4.15 Questions and Answers. 44

5 Inductance. 46

5.1 Origin of Inductance. 46

5.2 Magnetic Flux. 47

5.3 Definition and Calculation of Inductance. 47

5.4 Magnetic Field Line Loops. 48

5.5 Inductance of Isolated Structure. 48

5.6 Mutual Inductance. 50

5.7 Changing Magnetic Field and Induced EMF. 51

5..8 Total Inductance. 52

5.9 Impedance of a Inductor 54

5.10 Questions and Answers. 54

6 Power Planes. 56

6.1 Need of Multilayer Board. 56

6.2 Power Plane for Impedance Requirements. 56

6.3 Power Plane for Power Supply Requirement 56

6.4 Tight Coupling and Crosstalk requirements. 57

6..5 Power Plane and Stitching Capacitors. 57

6.6 A typical 4 Layer stack up. 57

6.7 A typical 6 Layer stack up. 57

6.8 A typical 8 Layer stack up.. 59

6.9 Symmetry and Board Warping. 60

6.10 Tom and Bob. 60

7 Power Supply. 62

7.1 DC Perspective. 62

7.2 Power Supply – The AC Perspective. 64

7.3 Inductance of Power Supply Wiring. 67

7.4 Minimum Impedance Requirement of an IC with IO gates switching. 68

7.5 How to achieve low impedance. 71

7.6 Series Inductance of Bypass Capacitor and need for local capacitor. 72

7.7 Find the Impedance profile of power supply. 72

7.8 Capacitance of Power-Ground Plane. 74

7.9 Tom and Bob. 75

8 Differential Signaling.. 86

8.1 Advantages of Differential Signaling. 86

8.2 Immunity from Ground Noise. 86

8.3 Power saving by use of small voltage.. 87

8.4 High Data Speed Possible. 87

8.5 Immunity to Crosstalk / Electromagnetic interference. 87

8.6 Rules for Differential Signal Routing. 87

8.7 Differential Impedance. 88

8.8 Microstrip Differential impedance. 88

8.9 Stripline Differential impedance. 89

8.10 Crosstalk in Differential Signaling. 90

8.11 HyperTransport – A case study. 90

8.12 Routing Differential Signals on PADS Router©.. 92

8.13 Differential Impedance Calculator Using HSPICE 2D Field Solver 97

8.14 Never Rely completely on automatic Design Rule tester 99

8.15 Questions and Answers. 100

9 Transmission Line. 101

9.1 When is Transmission Line essential 101

9.2 Properties of Transmission Lines. 102

9.3 Capacitance and Inductance Per Unit length of the Transmission Lines. 102

9.4 Propagation Delay. 103

9.5 Characteristic Impedance. 104

9.6 Impedance Calculator for Microstrip. 105

9.7 Impedance Calculator for Stripline. 109

9.8 A Comparison of the IPC Calculator, Wadell Formula and 2D Field Solver 111

9.9 Impedance Calculations and Verification from within PADS. 112

9.10 Impedance Calculations and Verification from within Allegro. 117

9.11 The Return Path on a Transmission Line. 123

9.12 Impedance between power Planes. 126

9.13 Reflections from Capacitive discontinuity. 127

9.14 Effect of Incident Signal Rise time. 128

9.15 Effect of the Capacitance Value on reflection. 129

9.16 Effect of Impedance on Reflection. 131

9.17 Compensating small Inductive or Capacitive discontinuity. 132

9.18 Calculating the length of the thin trace. 135

9.19 Thin Traces at breakout region. 140

9.20 The reflection Coefficient 141

9.21 Input Acceptance voltage. 142

9.22 The Source and Load impedance. 143

9.23 Source Termination. 144

9.24 End Termination. 145

9.25 Reflection from Capacitive Loads. 145

9.26 Transmission Line – An intuitive approach. 145

9.27 Losses in Transmission Lines. 146

9.28 Resistive Losses. 146

9.29 Estimation of Resistive loss for High Frequency Signals. 146

9.30 The Power ratios in dB.. 148

9.31 Expression of Power in Absolute Unit - dBm.. 149

9.32 Power gain in nepers. 150

9.33 Power Ratio in dB in terms of voltage ratio. 151

9.34 Expression of Voltage in Absolute Unit – dBmV.. 151

9.35 Expression of Voltage in Absolute Unit – dBμV.. 151

9.36 Skin Effect 152

9.37 Skin Depth. 153

9.38 Effect of Surface Roughness on Signal Loss. 154

9.39 Dielectric Losses. 154

9.40 Radiation and Induction Losses. 155

9.41 Questions and Answers. 155

10 Simulation using Hspice. 157

10.1 Reflected Wave Simulation. 159

10.2 Effect of Source Impedance. 160

10.3 Effect of Capacitive discontinuity. 162

10.4 Parameter in hspice. 163

10.5 Parameter sweep. 164

10.6 A 2D Field Solver using HSPICE.. 165

10.7 Inductance of a trace – an interesting rule of thumb. 171

10.8 Power Plane Inductance. 173

11 Crosstalk. 177

11.1 Inductive Coupling or Crosstalk. 177

11.2 How to avoid Inductive Crosstalk. 177

11.3 Capacitive Coupling or Crosstalk. 177

11.4 How to avoid capacitive Coupling. 178

11.5 Directionality of Crosstalk. 178

11.6 Near End Cross talk. 179

11.7 Effect of Trace separation on NEXT signal amplitude. 180

11.8 Effect of separation from Power Planes. 185

11.9 Microstrip Vs Stripline. 187

11.10 Far End Cross Talk. 189

11.11 Variation with rise time. 191

11.12 Variation with length. 192

11.13 A formula for the Far End Cross Talk Ratio. 193

11.14 Stripline and FEXT. 194

11.15 Reducing FEXT. 194

11.16 Guard Traces. 194

11.17 Practical Considerations for routing Guard Traces. 196

11.18 Questions and Answers. 197

12 Characterization of High Speed Bus. 200

12.1 Correlating Simulation Result with Characterization Results. 200

12.2 Characterizing voltage margin. 201

12.3 Characterizing frequency margin. 201

12.4 Oscilloscope. 202

12.5 Time Domain Reflectometer 205

12.6 Jitter 206

13 Designing for EMI Compliance. 209

13.1 An Approximation of Electric Field from A Current Loop Antenna. 212

13.2 What Causes EMI. 213

13.2.1 Cables. 214

13.2.2 Field induced in cables. 214

13.2.3 Clock Oscillators. 215

13.2.4 Mismatched Transmission Line. 215

13.2.5 Long Traces. 215

13.3 How to Reduce EMI. 215

13.3..1 Match the Transmission Line and Termination. 215

13.3.2 Use Short Clock Lengths where possible. 215

13.3.3 Use Differential Signaling. 215

13..3.4 Use Higher value of Series Resistor 216

13.3.5 Use Stripline over Microstrip for Critical Nets. 217

13.3.6 Board level Shielding. 217

13.3.7 Use Lower Voltage Swing. 217

13.3.8 Do not route Critical Signals near edges. 218

13.3.9 Use of Metallic Shields or Enclosures. 218

13.3.10 Shield Conductive Coating. 218

13.3.11 Use of Spread Spectrum Oscillators. 219

13.4 Conducted Emission. 220

13.5 Doing your own EMI analysis. 220

13.6 Question and Answers. 224

14 Signal Integrity Tips. 225

14.1 Tips for Integrity of Point to Point Signal 225

14.2 Tips for Cross talk Reduction. 226

14.3 Tips for Power Supply Noise Reduction. 227

14.4 Tips for EMI Reductions. 227

15 Shielding.. 229

15.1 Reflection. 230

15.2 Absorption loss. 232

15.3 Effect of Apertures. 234

16 Miscellaneous SI Topics. 236

16.1 Pre-emphasis. 236

16.2 Cable Twisting. 236

16.3 Package Model 237

16.4 Models and Modeling. 239

16.5 Right Angle PCB Bend. 241

16.6 Via. 243

16.7 Insertion of Guard Band to reduce cross talk. 243

16.8 Differential Pairs – coupling tight or not 244

16.9 Magic Capacitors. 245

16.10 PCI Bus. 246

16.11 Using Blind Vias in BGA based PCB Design. 248

16.12 BGA, Blind via and Via in Pad. 249

16.13 Consideration for Mixed PADs with and without Vias. 250

16.14 Blind Via and aspect ratio. 250

16.15 Relation between BGA pitch and pad size. 250

17 Questions and Answers. 252

18 References. 262

19 Index