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high efficiency InGaN based quantum well solar cell

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bader

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www.solarbotics.net/bftgu/starting elect ic.html

i want to understand the physics of semiconductor where can i find useful tutorials
 

vale

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recent research on homojunction solar cells

To better understand, a tutorial is inadequate. You need a textbook, such as Semiconductor Device Fundamentals by Pierret.
Selfstudy of semiconductor physics is not a easy task. You may need some knowledge of solid state physics.
 

IanP

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cmos threshold voltage calculation wikipedia

Why don't you go GOOGLE and type: SEMICONDUCTOR+BASICS
You will get more than 300 000 entries of which about 100 000 will be relevant (example **broken link removed** )
 

sabari

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principe bipolar trasistors

please refer to book smith and sedra an international editon for funda concepts in semiconductors. please refer it.
 

dkace

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hot probe semiconductor band theory

The best "tutorials" are in books for electronics.
Sendra/Smith Microelectronic Circuits have a simple yet very good presentation for semiconductors.
If you want something more advanced, with more explained mathematical psice models I suggest Lacker/Sansen " Design of Analog Integrated Circuits and Systems". Also very good and with layout examples.
If you really want to study semiconductors from scratch and go directly to the physical model, understand how carriers movea nd way, what happens in solid state then my friend one book is for you:
Tsividis " The MOS Transistor". But this is if you want to go into tinny details starting from the physics of a semiconductor and gradually upgrade to the basic MOST or more complex MOST structures.
Hope I helped,
D.
 

carrot

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wiki kirk effect mosfet

Hi

It's better to refer, Semiconductor physics by Ben.G.Streetman
 

ikru26

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mos capacitor animation

(((((**h****p://jas2.eng.buffalo.edu/applets/******

Physics of Semiconductor Devices
by Simon M. Sze..check this
 

noghabi

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depletion mode mosfet p type model

Physics of Semiconductor Devices, S.M. Sze, 3rd edition:
h**p://
 

suvendu

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importent questions on hybrid pi model

1>semiconductor devices and physics -S.M.SZE
2>PHYSICS OF SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES
3>BOOK BY PIERRET
4>TYAGI
 

Sadegh.j

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thyristor+principle+applet

Hey

This is certainly not so very easy. You need to start from the modern physics, Solid state physics, band theory and then semiconductors (intrinsic or extrinsic) but for a very basic knowledge check out some "materials science" text book such as Materials Science and Engineering: An Introduction. Check:

https://bcs.wiley.com/he-bcs/Books?action=index&bcsId=1188&itemId=0471135763

A good book.
 

The Joy of Electronics

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poole frenkel emission semiconductor tutorials

I think ur Qs is a bit ambiguous in that if u need to know about SC just to get started in Electronics a prelimenary introduction to SC such as that Found in Sedra is adequite; whereas deep study in SC itself requires an advanced book such as the ones introduced above.
 

rohitppande

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formation of inversion layer in mosfets animation

you can find a good information in the book - "S.M.Sze"
 

toram16

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auger recombination google books

for electronicc device according to me
street mano is one
smith/sedra is another good book
 

rabel126

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channel length modulation animation

modular series give u best concepts of semicconductors
 

mannnish

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physics tutorial poole frenkel emission

sedra's book is best choice.......
if u wana see how semiconductor devices work in animation form u can look it from www.malvino.com
 

bbgil

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chapter 2: semiconductor fundamentals

This is a link to what i think you are looking for. It discusses the physics of semiconductor devices.
Hope this helps.

**broken link removed**

Principles of Semiconductor Devices
Title Page Table of Contents Help Copyright
© B. Van Zeghbroeck, 2004


Table of Contents
Short table of contents

Title page
Table of contents
CDROM help
Copyright

Introduction
0.1. The semiconductor industry
0.2. Purpose and goal of the Text
0.3. The primary focus: CMOS integrated circuits
0.4. Applications illustrated with computer-generated animations

Chapter 1: Review of Modern Physics
1.1. Introduction

1.2. Quantum mechanics

1.2.1. Particle-wave duality
1.2.2. The photo-electric effect
1.2.3. Blackbody radiation
1.2.4. The Bohr model
1.2.5. Schrödinger's equation
1.2.6. Pauli exclusion principle
1.2.7. Electronic configuration of the elements


1.3. Electromagnetic theory
1.3.1. Gauss's law
1.3.2. Poisson's equation


1.4. Statistical thermodynamics
1.4.1. Thermal equilibrium
1.4.2. Laws of thermodynamics
1.4.3. The thermodynamic identity
1.4.4. The Fermi energy
1.4.5. Some useful thermodynamics results


Examples - Problems - Review Questions - Bibliography - Glossary - Equations
Chapter 2: Semiconductor fundamentals
2.1. Introduction

2.2. Crystals and crystal structures

2.2.1. Bravais lattices
2.2.2. Miller indices, crystal planes and directions
2.2.3. Common semiconductor crystal structures
2.2.4. Growth of semiconductor crystals


2.3. Energy bands

2.3.1. Free electron model
2.3.2. Periodic potentials
2.3.3. Energy bands of semiconductors
2.3.4. Metals, insulators and semiconductors
2.3.5. Electrons and holes in semiconductors
2.3.6. The effective mass concept
2.3.7. Detailed description of the effective mass


2.4. Density of states

2.4.1. Calculation of the density of states
2.4.2. Density of states in 1, 2 and 3 dimensions


2.5. Carrier distribution functions

2.5.1. The Fermi-Dirac distribution function
2.5.2. Example
2.5.3. Impurity distribution functions
2.5.4. Other distribution functions and comparison
2.5.5. Derivation of the Fermi-Dirac distribution function


2.6. Carrier densities

2.6.1. General discussion
2.6.2. Calculation of the Fermi integral
2.6.3. Intrinsic semiconductors
2.6.4. Doped semiconductors
2.6.5. Non-equilibrium carrier densities


2.7. Carrier transport

2.7.1. Carrier drift
2.7.2. Carrier mobility
2.7.3. Velocity saturation
2.7.4. Carrier diffusion
2.7.5. The Hall effect


2.8. Carrier recombination and generation

2.8.1. Simple recombination-generation model
2.8.2. Band-to-band recombination
2.8.3. Trap-assisted recombination
2.8.4. Surface recombination
2.8.5. Auger recombination
2.8.6. Generation due to light
2.8.7. Derivation of the trap-assisted recombination


2.9. Continuity equation

2.9.1. Derivation
2.9.2. The diffusion equation
2.9.3. Steady state solution to the diffusion equation


2.10. The drift-diffusion model

2.11 Semiconductor thermodynamics

2.11.1. Thermal equilibrium
2.11.2. Thermodynamic identity
2.11.3. The Fermi energy
2.11.4. Example: an ideal electron gas
2.11.5. Quasi-Fermi energies
2.11.6. Energy loss in recombination processes
2.11.7. Thermo-electric effects in semiconductors
2.11.8. The thermoelectric cooler
2.11.9. The "hot-probe" experiment


Examples - Problems - Review Questions - Bibliography - Glossary - Equations
Chapter 3: Metal-Semiconductor Junctions
3.1. Introduction

3.2. Structure and principle of operation

3.2.1. Structure
3.2.2. Flatband diagram and built-in potential
3.2.3. Thermal equilibrium
3.2.4. Forward and reverse bias


3.3. Electrostatic analysis

3.3.1. General discussion - Poisson's equation
3.3.2. Full depletion approximation
3.3.3. Full depletion analysis
3.3.4. Junction capacitance
3.3.5. Schottky barrier lowering
3.3.6. Derivation of Schottky barrier lowering
3.3.7. Solution to Poisson's equation


3.4. Schottky diode current

3.4.1. Diffusion current
3.4.2. Thermionic emission current
3.4.3. Tunneling
3.4.4. Derivation of the Metal-Semiconductor junction current


3.5 Metal-Semiconductor contacts

3.5.1. Ohmic contacts
3.5.2. Tunnel contacts
3.5.3. Annealed and alloyed contacts
3.5.4. Contact resistance to a thin semiconductor layer


3.6 Metal-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MESFETs)

3.7 Schottky diode with an interfacial layer

3.8 Other unipolar junctions

3.8.1. The n-n+ homojunction
3.8.2. The n-n+ heterojunction
3.8.3. Currents across a n-n+ heterojunction


3.9 Currents through insulators

3.9.1. Fowler-Nordheim tunneling
3.9.2. Poole-Frenkel emission
3.9.3. Space charge limited current
3.9.4. Ballistic transport in insulators


Examples - Problems - Review Questions - Bibliography - Glossary - Equations
Chapter 4: p-n Junctions
4.1. Introduction

4.2. Structure and principle of operation

4.2.1. Flatband diagram
4.2.2. Thermal equilibrium
4.2.3. The built-in potential
4.2.4. Forward and reverse bias


4.3. Electrostatic analysis of a p-n diode

4.3.1. General discussion - Poisson's equation
4.3.2. The full-depletion approximation
4.3.3. Full depletion analysis
4.3.4. Junction capacitance
4.3.5. The linearly graded p-n diode
4.3.6. The abrupt p-i-n diode
4.3.7. Solution to Poisson's equation
4.3.8. The heterojunction p-n diode


4.4. The p-n diode current

4.4.1. General discussion
4.4.2. The ideal diode current
4.4.3. Recombination-generation current
4.4.4. I-V characteristics of real p-n diodes
4.4.5. The diffusion capacitance
4.4.6. High injection effects
4.4.7. p-n heterojunction current


4.5. Reverse bias breakdown

4.5.1. General breakdown characteristics
4.5.2. Edge effects
4.5.3. Avalanche breakdown
4.5.4. Zener breakdown
4.5.5. Derivations


4.6. Optoelectronic devices

4.6.1. Photodiodes
4.6.2. Solar cells
4.6.3. LEDs
4.6.4. Laser diodes


4.7. Photodiodes

4.7.1. p-i-n photodiodes
4.7.2. Photoconductors
4.7.3. Metal-Semiconductor-Metal (MSM) photodetectors


4.8. Solar cells

4.8.1. The solar spectrum
4.8.2. Calculation of maximum power
4.8.3. Conversion efficiency for monochromatic illumination
4.8.4. Effect of diffusion and recombination in a solar cell
4.8.5. Spectral response
4.8.6. Influence of the series resistance


4.9. Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs)

4.9.1. Rate equations
4.9.2. DC solution to the rate equations
4.9.3. AC solution to the rate equations
4.9.3. Equivalent circuit of an LED


4.10. Laser diodes

4.10.1. Emission absorption and modal gain
4.10.2. Principle of operation of a laser diode
4.10.3. Longitudinal modes in the laser cavity
4.10.4. Waveguide modes
4.10.5. The confinement factor
4.10.6. The rate equations for a laser diode
4.10.7. Threshold current of multi quantum well laser
4.10.8. Large signal switching of a laser diode


Examples - Problems - Review Questions - Bibliography - Equations
Chapter 5: Bipolar Junction Transistors
5.1. Introduction

5.2. Structure and principle of operation

5.3. Ideal transistor model

5.3.1. Forward active mode of operation
5.3.2. General bias modes of a bipolar transistor
5.3.3. The Ebers-Moll model
5.3.4. Saturation.


5.4. Non-ideal effects

5.4.1. Base-width modulation
5.4.2. Recombination in the depletion region
5.4.3. High injection effects
5.4.4. Base spreading resistance and emitter current crowding
5.4.5. Temperature dependent effects in bipolar transistors
5.4.6. Breakdown mechanisms in BJTs


5.5 Base and Collector transit time effects

5.5.1. Collector transit time through the base-collector depletion region
5.5.2. Base transit time in the presence of a built-in field
5.5.3. Base transit time under high injection
5.5.4. Kirk effect


5.6 BJT circuit models

5.6.1. Small signal model (hybrid pi model)
5.6.2. Large signal model (Charge control model)
5.6.3. SPICE model


5.7. Heterojunction bipolar transistors

5.8. BJT technology

5.8.1. First Germanium BJT
5.8.2. First silicon IC technology


5.9. BJT power devices

5.9.1. Power BJTs
5.9.2. Darlington Transistors
5.9.3. Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR) or Thyristor
5.9.4. DIode and TRiode AC switch (DIAC and TRIAC)


Examples - Problems - Review Questions - Bibliography - Equations


Chapter 6: Metal-Oxide-Silicon Capacitors
6.1. Introduction

6.2. Structure and principle of operation

6.2.1. Flatband diagram
6.2.2. Accumulation
6.2.3. Depletion
6.2.4. Inversion


6.3. MOS analysis

6.3.1. Flatband voltage calculation
6.3.2. Inversion layer charge
6.3.3. Full depletion analysis
6.3.4. MOS Capacitance


6.4. MOS capacitor technology

6.5. Solution to Poisson's equation

6.5.1. Introduction
6.5.2. Electric field versus surface potential
6.5.3. Charge in the inversion layer
6.5.4. Low frequency capacitance
6.5.5. Derivation


6.6. p-MOS equations

6.6.1. p-MOS equations
6.6.2. General equations


6.7. Charge Coupled devices

Examples - Problems - Review Questions - Bibliography - Equations


Chapter 7: MOS Field Effect Transistors
7.1. Introduction

7.2. Structure and principle of operation

7.3. MOSFET analysis

7.3.1. The linear model
7.3.2. The quadratic model
7.3.3. The variable depletion layer model


7.4. Threshold voltage

7.4.1. Threshold voltage calculation
7.4.2. The substrate bias effect


7.5. MOSFET SPICE MODEL

7.6. MOSFET Circuits and Technology

7.6.1. Poly-silicon gate technology
7.6.2. CMOS
7.6.3. MOSFET Memory


7.7. Advanced MOSFET issues

7.7.1. Channel length modulation
7.7.2. Drain induced barrier lowering
7.7.3. Punch through
7.7.4. Sub-threshold current
7.7.5. Field dependent mobility
7.7.6. Avalanche breakdown and parasitic bipolar action
7.7.7. Velocity saturation
7.7.8. Oxide Breakdown
7.7.9. Scaling


7.8. Power MOSFETs

7.7.1. LDMOS
7.8.2. VMOS transistors and UMOS
7.8.3. Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT)


7.9. High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs)

Examples - Problems - Review Questions - Bibliography - Equations


Appendices
A.1 List of Symbols
List of symbols by name
Extended list of symbols
A.2 Physical constants
A.3 Material parameters
A.4 Prefixes
A.5 Units
A.6 The greek alphabet
A.7 Periodic table
A.8 Numeric answers to selected problems
A.9 Electromagnetic spectrum
A.10 Maxwell's equations
A.11 Chemistry related issues
A.12 Vector calculus
A.13 Hyperbolic functions
A.14 Stirling approximation
A.15 Related optics
A.16 Equation sheet

Glossary
Quick access
 

hakeen

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3.9 currents through insulators

The above link

h**p://

is not functioining (at least in my attemption). Be careful!!!

h**p://

BR
Hakeen
 

El-Hadidy

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wikipedia search for drifts and diffusion current

I suppose the best way is to search the internet for animations like the one bbgil has sent. Or use wikipedia or Encarta encyclopedia where simple and straight forward information is introduced.

Thank you bbgil for this link.

El-Hadidy
 

maharshi_qis

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poisson equation

u cant understand semiconuctor physics by reading tutorials fro net..u need to rad the book lik millman..n only concepts also would b clear..
 

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