# Electromagnetic Simulation using the FDTD method

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#### havehuang

##### Newbie level 4
electromagnetic simulation using the fdtd method

Electromagnetic Simulation using the FDTD method

#### moonkim

##### Newbie level 6
fdtd method

What is the advantage/difference of using FDTD as compared to finite element methods (HFSS)?

#### Manjunatha_hv

Hello Moonkim,

Here you go...
Finite element methods in the frequency domain are useful for a limited class of modelling. However, the matrix of finite element equations becomes very large and difficult to solve in many microwave and RF structures. Equally, to obtain a frequency response, the analysis must be performed at many frequencies over the range – especially for devices containing multiple resonances.

In the time domain, finite element methods in unstructured meshes, usually lead to a set of equations that can only be solved using an implicit method, which is not sufficiently fast for design purposes.

One of the reasons that finite element problems become very large for microwave and RF models is the need to model the wave structure in free space. Integral methods overcome this by only discretizing the surface of the geometry. For applications such as radar cross section this is a very suitable approach. However, as the structure becomes more complex, the simulation times increase rapidly – usually as the cube of the number of surface elements.

FDTD using the Yee algorithm is a well established and proven method for simulating RF and microwave problems. Although the number of equations is large, the explicit formulation is very fast.
The limitation of FDTD is that the time step is dependent on the size of the smallest finite difference cell in the grid for stability. When approximating a curved or sloping structure, a conventional FDTD method may use many small cells.

---manju---

gaoyingj2005

V
Points: 2

### gaoyingj2005

Points: 2

#### ali110

##### Full Member level 1

HI
I think the most important advantage of FDTD respect other than is that it's no need for caculation matrix inverse that take many time

#### maggie

##### Newbie level 4

Every modeling technique has some strengths and some weaknesses. Some types of models were a given technique will excel and some types of models were the same technique will have difficulty (if it is even possible to use) performing rapidly and accurately.

FDTD is a very versatile modeling technique. It is a very intuitive technique, so users can easily understand how to use it, and know what to expect from a given model.

FDTD is a time domain technique, and when a time-domain pulse (such as a Gaussian pulse) is used as the source pulse, then a wide frequency range is solved with only one simulation. This is extremely useful in applications where resonant frequencies are not known exactly, or anytime that a broadband result is desired.

Since FDTD is a time-domain technique which finds the E/H fields everywhere in the computational domain, it lends itself to providing animation displays (movies) of the E/H field movement throughout the model. This type of display is extremely useful to understanding exactly what is going on in the model, and to help insure that the model is working correctly.

FDTD allows the user to specify the material at all points within the computational domain. All materials are possible and dielectrics, magnetic materials, etc. can be simply modeled without the need to resort to ?work arounds? or ?tricks? to model these materials.

FDTD allows the effects of apertures to be determined directly. Shielding effects can be found, and the fields both inside and outside a structure can be found directly.

FDTD provides the E and H fields directly. Since most EMI/EMC modeling applications are interested in the E/H fields, it is best that no conversions must be made after the simulation has run to get these values.

Since the computational domain must end at some point (or we would be modeling the entire universe!!), a boundary must be established. FDTD has a number of very good absorbing boundary conditions to chose from (and some that are not quite so good). The absorbing boundary condition (ABC) simulates the effect of free space beyond the boundary forever.

Added after 2 hours 34 minutes:

Since FDTD requires that the entire computational domain be gridded, and these grids must be small compared to the smallest wavelength and smaller than the smallest feature in the model, very large computational domains can be developed, which result in very long solution times. Models with long, thin features, (like wires) are difficult to model in FDTD because of the excessively large computational domain required.

FDTD finds the E/H fields directly everywhere in the computational domain. If the field values at some distance (like 10 meters away) are desired, it is likely that this distance will force the computational domain to be excessively large. Far field extensions are available for FDTD, but require some amount of post processing.

#### engmfarhat

the fdtd method for electromagnetics

i get theses words about fdtd from previous message in the edaboard but i didn't remember where.? and i retype it in aword file

#### abdoeng

xfdtd electromagnetic simulation

havehuang said:
Electromagnetic Simulation using the FDTD method
are u mean software package,i trust that xfdtd from remcom,very accurate simulator in antenna simulation

dsrinivas1988

### dsrinivas1988

Points: 2

#### pippopamp

##### Newbie level 4
electromagnetic simulation using fdtd method

I'm finding the FDTD3D matlab file by Hagness.... ^__^

Can you help me?

Txx!!

##### Full Member level 2
free electromagnetic simulator

What about Finite Element Method (FEM)????

maximal10

### maximal10

Points: 2

#### vasikara

##### Junior Member level 2
td electromagnetic simulations using matlab

havehuang said:
Electromagnetic Simulation using the FDTD method

Hi this is vasikaran.

I am Doing M.E. "Thiagrajar College of Engineering Madurai - INDIA"

I am doing my project in 3D-FDTD and also doing a conference paper in 3D FDTD. Since i have 0 points in my account i cannot able to download the book.

It will be very much helpfull for my project sir

my mail id is "vasikaran.tce@gmail.com"

With Regards

Vasikaran

#### llsgz85

##### Newbie level 2
fdtd method using matlab

what is the difference between the MOM method and the FDTD method?

#### medaziz

##### Member level 4
fdtd antenna model difficult

MoM is an integral method, based on Green function, but FDTD it's a differential method based on discretesiation of the time and the space

#### itubeusa

##### Newbie level 1
electromagneic simulation using fdtd methods

There are very good packages for those who want to start with FDTD simulation (MEEP) and photonic band gaps calculation (MPB): http://ab-initio.mit.edu/wiki/index.php/Main_Page
These packages are written for Unix but they are also very easy to use, can be installed and run on Cygwin

#### markt1964

##### Newbie level 1

Is this manual available anywhere else? Thanks

#### MusicMan

##### Member level 2
method fdtd with example in matlab

i think you can search it on the net. just be patient in browsing. i remember downloading it once but i can't find that file. i'll give the link if i find one...

#### somot

##### Newbie level 2
fdtd antenna meep

havehuang said:
Electromagnetic Simulation using the FDTD method

Dear,

Would you please send it to me? I really need it.
email: anhlinh.nguyen@gmail.com

Thanks and regards,
somot

#### MusicMan

##### Member level 2
fdtd ÑÑƒÑ‚ÑŒ Ð¼ÐµÑ‚Ð¾Ð´Ð°

you can use the free mirror link just below the download button... you must have at least 5 post to be able to use this...;-)

##### Member level 1

pl ..if any one has the book -Electromagnetic Simulation using the FDTD method
pl send it to me at priyaadharshnii@yahoo.com pl help me

#### jithesh

##### Member level 5
meep fdtd photoluminescence

Hi

#### safa123

##### Newbie level 2

Hello,

Can anybody please email me the book in the the first post "Electromagnetic Simulation using the FDTD method.rar" to noah.safa@yahoo.com.

I have neither enough points nor 5 posts (yet!) to download it myself.

Safa
noah.safa@yahoo.com

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