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C++ does not contain any built-in support for multithreaded applications. Instead, it relies entirely upon the operating system to provide this feature.
Language-level support for multithreading usually means offering only a “lowest common denominator” of features. With C++, you gain access to all the features that the operating system provides. This is a major advantage when writing high-performance code.
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In Java there are predefined classes for thread programming(Thread class)
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In a thread based multitasking environment , the thread is the smallest unit of dispatchable code. A single program can perform two or more tasks simultaneously(well, almost, for a single processor). Multithreading enables you to write very efficient programs that make maximum use of CPU(low idle time).
Whereas, a function is a block of source code which does one or some tasks with specified purpose and can be called to perform as many time it is needed.
In very simple words this is the difference between function and thread