# basic troubleshooting formulas

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#### walters troubleshooting formulas

What are some basic troubleshooting formulas to use when u troubleshoot circuits ?

What are some critical troubleshooting formulas u must use when doing troubleshooting any circuit?

1.) Use Ohms law to calculate resistor voltages,voltage drops,currents and resistor power dissipation
to find the wattage value.
2.) calculating AC ripple peak to peak voltage and ripple frequency in the power supply
3.) calculating voltage follower,inverting,non-invertering IC op-amp gains and voltage output values
(used for if the IC chip is good and there is signal on the output pin of the IC put the gain is not
the right value then there is something wrong resistance,capacitance or diode in that stage)
4.) Transistor gains and voltage output also to verify its working in operation point
5.) calculate the RMS AC power using the AC power formula
( AC voltage * to the 2nd power then divided by the speaker ohms)

6.) any others can u guys think of please?

How do u calculate the bias voltages? so u know what to set the trimmer pots in the range of? if they don't
tell u in the schematic what values are how would u find what the bias voltages are please?
Can u just put your oscilloscope probe on the output of the IC chip,transitor,tube and adjust the trimmers or biasing resistors until u see a balanced symmetrical waveform? instead of calculating the biasing values?

#### walters basic ac voltage formulas - books

Any critical formulas i should know by heart for troubleshooting,testing,measuring please?

#### pmonon

##### Full Member level 3 Characteristic impedance, frequency response, transient analysis, depending on the components and circuit medium.

#### walters Characteristic impedance, frequency response, transient analysis

Can u please explain more about characteristic impedance and how its done?
for testing,measuring,or using formulas?

frequency response, transient analysis how is this done using formulas ?

#### pmonon

##### Full Member level 3 Ch. Impedance, Zo=√{(R+jωL)/(G+jωC)}

R is the resistance per unit length,
L is the inductance per unit length,
G is the conductance per unit length, and
C is the capacitance per unit length.

The impulse response and step response are transient responses to a specific input (an impulse and a step, respectively). You need an oscilloscope and signal generator to do it. The responses depend on the circuit elements, the values of R, L, C.

Frequency response can be measured applying an impulse or sinusoidal signals with frequency range. You are essentially testing the filtering characteristics. Again you need Oscilloscope and signal generator.

You can consult circuit analysis books...

#### walters Thanks for the help

i have a analog oscilloscope and a function generator

how can i use impulse response,step response,transient responses?
my analog function generator only has triangle,sine,square i would need a digital function generator to do this

What kind of time domain measurements can u do with a analog oscilloscope or digital oscilloscope?

Time domain measurments:
1.) Rise time , fall time
2.) pulse width
3.) duty cycle
4.) time constants
5.) phase or time offset delay intervals
6.) symmetry

Frequency domain measurments: using FFT function
1.) How many harmonics
2.) Amplitude of each harmonics

Other than time domain and frequency domain
what kind/type of domain are these please?
impulse response,step response,transient responses?

What else can u measure on the oscilloscope ?

#### pmonon

##### Full Member level 3 You can work on Lissajous curves...But I am not sure whether it will be good for any quantitative analysis...

Lissajous figures are for phase relationship analysis...but you can look at it if you find it interesting...it is easy with a normal oscilloscope

you can work with eye pattern also

#### walters yes for dual tracing scopes

What else can u do with dual tracing on oscilloscopes pleaes?

#### p.mlo

##### Junior Member level 2 You can swich to differencial mode and for example try to clear a signal from a specific row of harmonics, ore from noise to see the clear trace.

#### walters Does Mathlab have all the electronic formulas AC and DC already programmed so u just enter in the resistor,capacitor,inductors,transistor,etc values and it does all the calculations for u ?

I'm wondering if Mathlab is like a electronic formula calculator? that has all the electronic formulas in a library in the calculator so u just enter in the data u want really easy not have to know and memorize all the AC and DC formulas u know what i mean guys?

#### p.mlo

##### Junior Member level 2 There are better programs for simulating circuts than Matlab, for electric and electronic circuts use Mulitsim ore one of S.P.I.C.E. programs. Matlab is for scientists.

#### pmonon

##### Full Member level 3 There are some specialized simulations for which Matlab is the best tool. For example, when you are dealing with signals and systems. You can define system parameters very easily in Matlab. Matlab and Simulink can altogether meet the circuit analysis requirement. It is for both scientists and engineers.

#### walters thanks guys for the help

But what software programs are for electronic math formulas like my electronic math books with all the AC and DC formulas that has a software programs that has all the AC and DC formulas built in the library so all i have to do is just enter in the data really easy and it does the calculations for me u know what i mean?

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