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  1. A

    what is hot topics in analog design research?

    Devices Change all the time, So we can not predict what devices will be used. But MICs' future seems to be bright.
  2. A

    Voltage level shifters

    Refer to Razavi, "Analogue CMOS design"
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    Capacitors between power and ground

    capacitors for power spikes This is Correct! As is well demonstrated electrolytic capacitors have bad frequency response. One may model them roughly by a capacitor and an inductor in series. What I here intend to add is to keep in mind to place a 100nF capacitor near every block of circuit...
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    What is fT of a transistor?

    bf494 The frequency at which the current gain of the transistor from base to collector is unity. You shouldn't operate the transistor in frequencies near ft.
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    Flip-Flop initial value at startup?

    I encountered this problem recently too. I intend to simulate a three state phase detector using spice. I got the output always X, due to invalid initial value. So what can I do to solve this problem?
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    My mega32 resets after 7 interrupt in a row

    Hi! I have connected a matrix of 6×4 switches to a mega 32 so that I can give it commands. In order to do that, I have ORed the row switches and connected the result to the interrupt pin. So when a switch is pushed the interrupt service routine is executed. The idea works except for the time I...
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    PLL Model in Simulink

    Hi! I want to build a PLL model in Simulink. Can anyone help me?
  8. A

    voltage drop & transistor question

    how to use 2n3904 in multisim Hi Design starts with the statement of the specification: for example u may wish to design a single stage transistor having gain 100 output resistance 1kΩ and input resistance 100kΩ. Then, assuming u choose to use a silicon BJT transistor, U could proceed to pick...
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    Can the loop filter in the PLL be adaptive?

    Re: PLL Question hi The fact that the loopgain depends on several parameters including VCO gain and PD gain is for sure. but the main parameter in the hands of the designer is the filter. What Im proposing is that the break frequency of the filter could change in different situations.
  10. A

    Help with an optical sensor

    Well that is a smart idea... I agree with Nandhu
  11. A

    How to obtain the minimum noise figure for a FET transistor?

    Re: FET transistor Hi! For obtaining minimum noise figure U should first obtain the noise parameters of the transistor though experiment, simulation, or datasheets. Then, using these parameters u can draw constant noise figure circles on the smith chart. considering other options like gain...
  12. A

    Can the loop filter in the PLL be adaptive?

    Can the loop filter in the PLL be adaptive, making the bandwidth increase during aquisition?
  13. A

    Looking for HF receiver schematic

    Re: Receiver Schematic Please give Ur request in some more detail, like the receiver is analogue or digital. In either form the receiver could take several forms such as AM FM SSB VSB for analogue and FSK, PSK and so on for digital. also the receiver could be superhetrodyne or otherwise.
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    project work - topic search - final year undergraduate

    Hi! In digital embedded electronics u could try something with microprocessors like AVR. For example u might want to control an appliance from the internet using AVR. In antenna subject U might find it interesting to design microstrip antennas which is an up to date subject.
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    Sample and hold instead of PLL filter?

    Hi! I intend to find the peaks ant troughs of the output of a gilbert multiplier in a pll though a differentiator and then sample these points. The difference between minima and maxima is simply the DC voltage. Is that feasible?
  16. A

    How does a PLL without a charge pump attain lock?

    Hi! How does a PLL without a charge pump attains lock? After all No integrator is inherent in it!
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    the basic theory of a divider

    Re: dividers help Its easy... U should use 4 op amps the first two should take the logarithms of the inputs the third should subtract them the forth should calculate the exponential function of the resultin voltage! If u dont know how to make these blocks I can explain. Good luck with ur...
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    Why is silicon used in chips ?

    Re: why Si? Well... I guess 1. Ease of extraction 2. Temperature tolerance 3. Less leakage Current and 4. Faster Swichig are the reasons.
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    Why is it necessary to use pads for ICs when mounting them on Vero board ?

    Re: Pads of IC's There are 2 main reasons. 1. Using a pad alowes the IC to be replaced latter in case of damage. 2. If u place the chip directly on the board u may over heat it when soldering. pads ovoid this
  20. A

    Which one is faster: nand or nor?

    Re: Hello! yes. The speed depends primarily on the logic family.

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