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    Optical Waveguide simulation with Lumerical: propagation loss, how is it calculated?

    Dear All, I am simulating with Lumerical: Mode solutions (2013) a single mode Si waveguide on SiO2; the numerical method used by this simulator is EigenModeExpansion. The geometry I am using as a reference is similar to a standard 500x220nm, which corresponds to very low simulated losses (it...
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    Gerber files are shown to me (ADS) as aligned but they are not received as aligned

    Dear all, please help me to solve this problem. I've also contacted the manufacturer, but I've received no response. I've viewed with all the tools from ADS, and the structure is aligned; but when I upload it on eurocircuits, my "holes" file is always shifted by (about) 1mm on the right...
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    Clipping RF circuits (1.5 GHz signals)

    Hi, do you have infos about RF circuits that can be used to clip a signal containing up to 1.5 GHz? I need to cut both positive and negative edges of the signal. Thank you, Best Regards, LandLack
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    [SOLVED] Zener Diodes (clipping schematic) on a 50 ohm matched RF circuit

    Hi, I need to use two zener diodes on this configuration (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clipper_%28electronics%29) on the output of a 50 ohm matched RF circuit (1.4 GHz is the biggest signal frequency). Is there any issue? Do I need to match the diodes? How, and how much? Can you give me an...
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    [SOLVED] Cuts : PCB design informations

    Hi, One of the devices I need to use needs the PCB to be cut (and also two additional holes for the screw drivers). I'm new to PCB designing, and I've never worked on cuts... How is it done? Do I need to define the shape with a new layer with it's own gerber file, or it is made shaping an...
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    [SOLVED] Laser's Inputs (please confirm my interpretations)

    Dear Community, I need to use this Laser: https://www.suncityinc.com.cn/IMAGE/pro/PDF/DC-18GHz_DFB_LD_FIN.pdf ; this is the first time, so I want just to be sure: 1)since the input is said to be matched at 50 ohm, and also since the "input-1db-compression-point" is seen as dBm...
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    Laser Noises and other issues; (to choose optimal DC current)

    Hi guys, I would like to insert inside a Direct Modulated Laser a multitone RF signal; the laser is this: https://www.suncityinc.com.cn/IMAGE/pro/PDF/DC-18GHz_DFB_LD_FIN.pdf . Bias current has a different input than the AC signal current, so I would like to inquire the best DC current to...
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    [SOLVED] Bandpass filter circuits

    Hi guys, do you have some bandpassfilter circuit? The professional ones cost too much, and aren't very "flexible" to my situations. If you have some practical, useful paper thery paper, please, link me. My situation is this passing Bandwidth need to be around 100MHz, but I don't need it to be...
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    [SOLVED] Help with mismatched circuit

    Hi, I've simulated a mismatched circuit: trace characteristic impedance=67.5 ohm, while all the devices have 50 ohms; and there are in total 6 devices in a row. The circuit has signals up to 1.4GHz. The results were the same as with the circuit with traces' characteristic impedance of 50 ohm...
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    Mixer's upconversion problems: need some suggestion about measurement reading

    Dear all, my project includes the use of one SMD mixer, SYM-25DLHW ( , used to upconvert a square signal (DC-to-around 30MHz) to RF tones (300 to 1500 MHz). Everything on the paper seems perfect, but once I've tried measuring an evaluation board I...
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    [SOLVED] FR-4 permittivity during high frequency

    FR-4 permittivity during high frequency (RF circuit) Hi, I know some theory, but no practice. So I don't understand some statements. I know that people discard the FR-4 for frequencies higher than the GHz. They say that the reason is the increase of the dielectric loss tangent (I agree) AND the...
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    [SOLVED] why some people's track widths are so small?

    (I use microstrip) For what I've understood track width depends mainly from maximum current in the lower frequencies, and on Z0 (characteristic impedance); so when I use the calculators, I have width values of around 1mm, or 1.7mm, etc. But I've found out that some people use tracks of only...
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    [SOLVED] Trace corners: curve/miltered design rules ... how do you people usualy approach?

    I have different types of signal flowing through the various traces, from DC to 1.5 GHz, from single tones, to multitones. I have calculated the correct width W in relation with Zo, frequency of the signals, etc., but I would like to know what are the rules to follow, the limits, and how do you...
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    [SOLVED] Trimmer potentiometers: how to use and choose

    Hi all, as always, I need some help with some information about trimmer potentiometers: 1-I don't know why there are three pins; shouldn't it have the need of only two since it's a resistance? 2-Also, I don't know why the resistance is said to be one certain value (i.e.50Kohm), while on the...
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    sudden trace width change effects

    Hi, I know that if you suddently change the trace width, you "encounter" a reflection caused by the characteristic impedance (correct me if I'm wrong), but I would like to know how much. My maximum working frequency is 1.5 GHz. The reason for this is the following: I need to know which...
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    4 Layers PCB : Via holes

    Dear all, I need to make a 4 layers PCB (the external two with SMT discrete components while the other two internal's are ground and power supply with two or three different types of voltages). I would like to know how much is the price difference between "through holes" and "blind holes"...
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    [SOLVED] Tuning an oscillator (tunable by voltage)

    I'm ashamed to ask these things, but I'm very inexperienced. I want to use JTOS-200 as a reference ( There are 4 ports: RF out, Vcc, Vtune, ground. The output and the ground are simple, but I would like to know something about the two other ports: 1) on...
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    [SOLVED] Mixer's output power

    I am putting a 10.35 dBm signal into a mixer; the datasheet tells me that the Conversion Loss of the device is 6.7dB for a Single-Side-Band (SSB). I have two questions: 1) The total power output of the mixer will be 6.6dBm, right? I ask this because I think that the output of this mixer is...
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    [SOLVED] Power combiner/Splitter noise fiugre (or in general noise power)

    Hi to all, I am reading some splitters' datasheet, but can't find any infos related to the noise (like noise figure, system temperature, etc.). I'm sending you a link with one of the datasheet; please tell me if I'm missing something. Also, is it realistic to think it as a filter or...
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    Signal mixing and oscillator "width"

    Hi to all, I/we know that in theory mixing is the product between the signal(t) and a cos(wt), and the latter is seen (in frequency domain) as an ideal impulse. Many real world oscillators are so "tight" in frequency that may be seen as an impulse, but I would like to know what are the...

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