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I'm not sure what you mean. Do you ask if there is a method for making PCBs without etching (using acids and such) ? Rapid PCB prototyping can be done with circuit mills. They mill&drill a copper board without chemicals. You'll still have to use them if you want to make two-layer boards...
Texas Instruments has a really great E-Book about opamps called Op Amps For Everyone. It's filled with "for dummies" examples including the math calculations.
https://www-s.ti.com/sc/psheets/slod006a/slod006a.pdf (2 MB)
Here's a small project, where voltage is measured with two opamps, some resistors, capacitors and the INT0 pin.
I also remember that Atmel or Microchip had an application note about measuring voltage with an internal analog comparator.
universal flash programmer
Do I need somekinda hardware between the PC and the hitachi to program it? MAX232? an eval board from hitachi? I'm testing the '3664 and '2128 microcontrollers in the near future...