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1. Feedback in microcontroller

Very true. However my question is little different. The final output of my microcontroller will be " pwm( error + fixed value). How do I calculate that fixed value?
2. Feedback in microcontroller

Hello, I have to control speed of a dc motor using arduino. Using tachometer i detect speed of the motor. However how will i decide the value for pwm. Iam using arduino. What should i write inside function analogwrite(); Thank you
3. Transfer function of electromagnet

Iam building this electromagnet for levitating a magnet below it using hall sensor as position sensor. Find the image for clearity. However I have to find the transfer function of the whole system to apply PID on it, as the system is unstable inherently. Electromagnet is wound around a long...
4. Transfer function of electromagnet

Hello, How should I proceed to find the transfer function of my Electromagnet?
5. collpits oscillator using opamp

can anyone please send me a working circuit of a collpits oscillator from opamp 741? Also plz explain what steps to follow to make our own collpits oscillator using opamp.
6. colpitts oscillator circuit

As i have read, in colpitts oscillator if A>C2/C1 the circuit is capable of oscillating at resonant frequency. but how does the change in value of inductor affect this stability criteria? - - - Updated - - - this was the frequency response of the circuit, and with the current circuit my...
7. colpitts oscillator circuit

how to find the range of inductance for which the circuit will function well in following circuit?
8. [SOLVED] lm311 relaxation oscillator

when we give -Vee = gnd, how can the ic work as relaxation oscillator i.e. when capacitor discharges it can never go below ground level voltage and hence inverting side stays higher than non inverting side giving 0V at output instead of square wave.
9. [SOLVED] lm311 output pin voltage

when i keep non-inverting side high i get a voltage of 4.9V and when inverting side is high i get a output of 3.3V. why does it not give 0V which i gave to 1 and 4 pin?
10. levitation system - pid controller

one more question has arised i was experimenting, how does frequency of PWM generated for solenoid effectthe whole system, and how should i decide the optimum frequency to be used?
11. levitation system - pid controller

i gave 5V as VCC. As under no magnetic field the sensor gives 2.5 V, with a gain=2, it will give 5V which will be above the range of voltage that arduino can sense. what VCC should i provide then?
12. levitation system - pid controller

Iam trying to design a magnetic Levitation System, with the help of solenoid, a magnet and PID controller. As iam using a hallsensor for sensing position of magnet and interfacing it with arduino, i dont get much range of voltage i.e. in arduino value varies from 350 to 500 with magnet and...
13. working of opampp in L-C meter

yeah you are right, in simulation the output frequency is according to frequency of LC tank circuit. But how will i analyse this circuit, its not making any sense.
14. working of opampp in L-C meter

can you guide me from where should i start in order to comprehend this circuit, i just know how the relaxation oscillator works.
15. working of opampp in L-C meter

can you explain what do you mean by "The hysteresis is set by LC circuit". LC circuit is responsible for sinusoidal waves, how can it set threshold levels?
16. [Moved]: electromagnet from 23 swg copper wire

Re: electeomagnet from 23 swg copper wire no i used soft iron as core.
17. [Moved]: electromagnet from 23 swg copper wire

hello, iam trying to make a powerful electromagnet in ordwr to levitate a screw from a distance of 5cm. what specs wud be needed to construct such electromagnet using 23 swg wire. Thanknyou. Ymmen
18. working of opampp in L-C meter

then can you plz explain how the comparator is setting up the two threshold levels and how to calculate those values? In circuits what i have learnt i never used a resonant circuit in non inverting terminal of opamp.
19. working of opampp in L-C meter

can anyone please explain me the operation of comparator LM311 in the ciruit below?
20. 4046 phase locked loop integrated chip

can you please send a circuit which helps in determining free running frequency 4046?