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while you program the ic , open and see the hex file is there some program , because in some compiler hex for 2051 will not be produced . or you could check this same code with 4051. once i had also got a problem like this my compiler was not producing proper hex file.
when one colum is selected then you should give data for that colum only , then make the data 00 and shift the colum , give the data for that colum .
so you first try to make letters static on the display.
i am considering that your colum is connected to controller port ,and colum is connected to uln .
so first we will do the basic think . shift led from left to right . for that first write a function for clean data in shift register .
then make your colum high and shift the register...