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    learn subnetting

    You think Subnetting is a beast?
    You think you have to be Superbrain to understand it?

    You are wrong!

    Here the step-by-step course.
    After reading and some self-training, you should be able to fix Subnetting-Questions in CCNA Exam
    without any problems in a snatch.
    Relax!

    What is a Subnetmask?

    With Subnetmasks, we can divide an IP-Address in network-part and in host-part.
    A given IP-Network can be divided in smaller parts. Each of this smaller parts is called a "Subnet".

    If we for example have the network

    192.168.10.0 255.255.255.0
    We have here ONE Class C - network, with 253 useable IPs for Client-PCs.


    The useable IP Range of this network is

    192.168.10.1 - 192.168.10.254

    The very last IP of each Subnet is called Broadcast-Address.
    This address is in that example 192.168.10.255 and its NOT useable for host-pcs.

    If we want to divide this network in two parts, we must use subnetting.


    With Subnetmask 255.255.255.128 we would divide the network in two parts.

    192.168.10.1 - 192.168.10.127

    192.168.10.128 - 192.168.10.255



    So in this example, BEFORE we had one big Network.
    With the change of the Subnet mask we did divide it in two smaller networks.

    First with Subnet mask 255.255.255.0 we had THIS network:
    192.168.10.0 >>> This is the "Network-IP" which is NOT usable for Host-PCs

    192.168.10.1
    192.168.10.2
    192.168.10.3
    192.168.10.4
    192.168.10.5
    ...
    ...
    ...
    192.168.10.253
    192.168.10.254
    192.168.10.255 >>>This is the Broadcast-IP, which is NOT useable for Host-PCs

    Now with Subnetmask 255.255.255.128 we have THIS two networks:

    First Subnet:

    192.168.10.0 >>> This is the "Network-IP" which is NOT useable for Host-PCs

    192.168.10.1
    192.168.10.2
    192.168.10.3
    192.168.10.4
    192.168.10.5
    ...
    ...
    ...
    192.168.10.125
    192.168.10.126
    192.168.10.127 >>>This is the Broadcast-IP, which is NOT useable for Host-PCs

    Second Subnet:

    192.168.10.128 >>> This is the "Network-IP" which is NOT useable for Host-PCs

    192.168.10.129
    192.168.10.130
    192.168.10.131
    192.168.10..132
    192.168.10.133
    ...
    ...
    ...
    192.168.10.253
    192.168.10.254
    192.168.10.255 >>>This is the Broadcast-IP, which is NOT useable for Host-PCs

    The Subnetmask defines how big the subnet is.
    That means - how many Client-PCs will have place in that subnetwork.

    A Subnetmask of 255.255.255.0 means in binary

    11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000

    So, what do we see?

    4 Blocks, divided with a ".". Each of these blocks is also called "octett". Because - each Block has 8 bits.

    To be able to do subnet-calculation, we first must understand binary calculation.

    Lets take the first block.

    The first "1" stands for a 128.

    The second "1" stands for a 64.

    The third "1" stands for a 32.

    The fourth "1" stands for a 16.

    The fifth "1" stands for a 8.

    And so on. That means:

    11111111=255

    11110000=240

    11100000=224

    If we see something like "/24", that means that 24 bits are set to "1", from the left side.

    Examples:

    /16 = 255.255.0.0 = 11111111.11111111.00000000.00000000

    /20 = 255.255.240.0 = 11111111.11111111.11110000

    If we would take a subnetmask of 255.255.255.255 that would be

    128+64+32+16+8+4+2+1.128+64+32+16+8+4+2+1.128+64+3 2+16+8+4+2+1.
    128+64+32+16+8+4+2+1

    and in binary it would be

    11111111.11111111.11111111.11111111

    Calculation of Subnet mask big enough for a specified number of Hosts

    If they ask..

    "create a subnet with minimum 10 host IPs"

    than

    1. calculate a power of two, that is minimum 10

    2^3=8. That is not enough
    2^4=16 That is higher than 10. Good.


    2. Now put the LAST 4 Bits of your subnetmask to 0.

    11111111.11111111.11111111.11110000

    That is in decimal

    255.255.255.240

    With THIS Subnetmask, you have minimum 10 Host-Ips in the Subnet, without wasting to much IP-Addresses.

    ------------------------------------------------------------
    ????: Firebb.Com http://www.firebb.com/showthread.php?t=2617
    Other example

    If they ask

    Create a subnet with minimum 70 Host-IPs

    1. Calculate a Power of 2 that is MINIMUM 70

    2^6=64. Not enough.
    2^7=128. Thats higher than 70. Good.

    2. Put the LAST 7 Bits of your Subnetmask to 0.

    11111111.11111111.11111111.10000000

    That is in decimal

    255.255.255.128

    You have a Subnetmask, with more than 70 Host-IPs.


    Look here, for some step by step examples, how to calculate subnets..


    -------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Calculation what is the Broadcast-IP of a Subnet

    When they ask
    "There is subnet 172.16.64.0/20. What is the BROADCAST ADDRESS of that Subnet, dude?"



    1. Step

    /20 meens 255.255.240.0

    2. Step

    Now analyze the Subnet Oktett to find out the "network-jumps"

    240 means 11110000

    The LAST of the 1s is under decimal 16. That are our "network jumps"
    (128/64/32/16/8/4/2/1)
    3. Step

    Write down the network-jumps


    172.16.64.0 - 172.16.79.255
    +16 172.16.80.0 - 172.16.95.255
    +16 172.16.96.0 - 172.16.111.255
    +16 172.16.112.0 - 172.16.127.255

    Because the NEXT Subnet in the example is 172.16.80.0, the broadcast must be 172.16.79.255, cause THAT is the IP BEFORE the next Subnet starts = the BroadcastAddress.



    ------------------------


    Other example of Broadcast-IP calculation:

    If it would be 172.16.64.0 /26

    Same procedure

    /26 means 255.255.255.192


    192 is binary 11000000
    The LAST 1 stands under the 64. That are in that example our "net-jumps".

    172.16.64.0 - 172.16.64.63 <<<in this example THIS is the broadcastaddress of first subnet
    172.16.64.64 - 172.16.64.127
    172.16.64.128 - 172.16.64.191


    ---------------------------------------------------------------------

    Calculating first and last possible IP for a Host

    You have Network 192.168.20.32 /27
    The very first IP is reserved for Default Gateway!
    What is the first and last valid IP for a Host-PC?

    1.Step

    /27 is 255.255.255.224

    2.Step

    224 means 11100000

    The LAST 1 is under the 32. That are our "network-jumps" in this example
    (128/64/32/16/8/4/2/1)

    Valid IPs in that subnet:
    192.168.20.33 - 192.168.20.62
    (192.168.20.63 is NOT useable, this is the very last IP and so the BROADCAST-IP).
    192.168.20.64 <<<this is the network-IP of the NEXT Subnet!

    So, because the very first IP is reserved for Default Gateway, our first Host-PC IP would be
    192.168.20.34
    The very last Host-PC IP would be
    192.168.20.62

    ################################################## #################

    Here some examples of real exam questions, and step by step solutions:


    Given that you have a class B IP address network range, which of the subnet masks
    below will allow for 100 subnets with 500 usable host addresses per subnet?
    A. 255.255.0.0
    B. 255.255.224.0
    C. 255.255.254.0
    D. 255.255.255.0
    E. 255.255.255.224

    Solution:

    Allways the same game... Like in 5 minute course..

    Power of 2 that is minimum 500?
    2^7=128
    2^8=256
    2^9=512 >>voila!

    Now - put the last 9 Bits of your Subnetmask to "0"

    11111111.11111111.11111110.00000000

    That is in decimal
    255.255.254.0


    ================================================== ===================
    If a host on a network has the address 172.16.45.14/30, what is the address of the
    subnetwork to which this host belongs?
    A. 172.16.45.0
    B. 172.16.45.4
    C. 172.16.45.8
    D. 172.16.45.12
    E. 172.16.45.18

    Solution:

    172.16.45.14/30

    /30 means 11111111.11111111.11111111.11111100

    The last of the ones stands under the "4". That is our increment or network jump.
    172.16.45.0 - 172.16.45.3
    172.16.45.4 - 172.16.45.7
    172.16.45.8 - 172.16.45.11
    172.16.45.12 - 172.16.45.15
    172.16.45.16 - 172.16.45.19

    As we see, the Ip is in the Range of 172.16.45.12 - 172.16.45.15.
    So the network Address is 172.16.45.12

    =================================================
    QUESTION NO: 9
    Which two of the addresses below are available for host addresses on the subnet
    192.168.15.19/28? (Select two answer choices)
    A. 192.168.15.17
    B. 192.168.15.14
    C. 192.168.15.29
    D. 192.168.15.16
    E. 192.168.15.31
    F. None of the above

    Solution:

    /28 means 11111111.11111111.11111111.11110000

    The last 1 stands under the 16. This is increment or network-jumps.

    192.168.15.0 - 192.168.15.15
    192.168.15.16 - 192.168.15.31
    192.168.15.32 - 192.168.15.47

    Only A and C are IPs in the right range.
    Also E is in the right range. But - this is not useable for hosts, cause its broadcastaddress.
    So answer is A and C.
    ????: Firebb.Com http://www.firebb.com/showthread.php?t=2617

    ################################################## ##############

    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Calculation of Wildcard-Masks (Needed for Access Lists and OSPF Configuration)

    You have Network 192.168.32.0 /28
    Only THIS network should be denied of accessing a network or server.

    1. Step
    calculate the wildcard mask

    /28 means 255.255.255.240

    binary this is

    11111111.11111111.11111111.11110000

    For wildcard-mask only the ZEROS are interesting.

    11110000 Make a addition of all the fields, that are set to zero

    128/64/32/16/8/4/2/1
    That is 8+4+2+1=15

    So the wildcard-mask will be
    0.0.0.15

    access-list will be

    access-list 1 deny 192.168.32.0 0.0.0.15
    access-list 1 permit ip any any

    now, we have to bind that access-list to a routerinterface. In the example, this is e0.

    interface e0
    ip access-group 1 out (or in!)
    exit

    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    PS.

    Its good to write on a BIG paper the powers of 2

    2^2=4
    2^3=8
    2^4=16
    2^5=32
    2^6=64
    2^7=128
    2^8=256
    2^9=512
    2^10=1024
    2^11=2048
    2^12=4096

    And write on that paper the numbers

    128 192 224 240 248 252 254

    Cause this are the Numbers, you will allways need in calculating Subnets.

    Burn them in your mind! Hang the paper in front of your eyes to never forget them.
    Then you will be able to calculate Subnets in your head in a half second!

    Isn't live easy?

    [size=medium]
    For your convience, full tutorial is attached in download in txt file format[/size]

    Download


    Code:
    http://w13.easy-share.com/1699807961.html

    •   Alt19th August 2009, 10:44

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  2. #2
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    step by step subnetting

    thx a lot..for this info..



    •   Alt6th September 2009, 11:00

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  3. #3
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    subnetting examples

    hey frens it helps a lot
    thanks 4 this........
    post some more things 4 ccna



    •   Alt8th September 2009, 20:51

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  4. #4
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    tanbukhari's Avatar
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    how to learn subnetting

    Inshallah I will post more.



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    Re: Learn Subnetting In 5 Minutes

    Hi there, I can't understand how I can put another IP range into a single router



  6. #6
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    Re: Learn Subnetting In 5 Minutes

    i really appreciate your effort dear...



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