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  1. Changing the Focus

    Those of us who have been in the PCB design business for more than a decade either have direct knowledge of, or have heard the stories about, how the profession has evolved since the late 70’s and early 80’s. The shift from drafting tables, Mylar, and hand taping, to light tables, digitizers and CRT’s, to autorouters and then auto-interactive routing, have all been part of the changing landscape. The large minimally lit “fishbowls” with raised floors have been replaced with individual cubicles, ...
  2. Dimming LEDs

    By Bill Schweber

    As the use of LEDs for area lighting has grown dramatically, with both the use of LED-based replacement bulbs as well as LED-based fixtures for new construction (called luminaires in the trade), the issue of dimming these LEDs becomes more critical. LEDs require a very different technique for dimming than the conventional legacy incandescent bulb. The dimming technique differs greatly if the LED is being used in a retrofit installation that already has an incandescent ...
  3. How to power and configure LEDs

    By Bill Schweber

    LEDs – light-emitting diodes – have largely supplanted other sources of light in many applications. They are used in applications ranging from small on/off power indicators, to small and large alphanumeric displays, to screen backlighting, and even for area and street illumination.

    It’s well known that LEDs are far more efficient than venerable incandescent lighting, and somewhat more efficient than fluorescent-based sources. While there are still specialty ...
  4. RFID Tag and Reader Antennas

    by , 26th March 2017 at 16:24 (Anil Pandey : Electronics Design and Simulations)
    RFID stands for Radio-Frequency Identification. The RFID device provides a unique identifier for that object and just as a bar code or magnetic strip the RFID device must be scanned to retrieve the identifying information.

    RFID System Working Principal

    A RFID system has three parts:

    A scanning antenna
    A transceiver with a decoder to interpret the data
    A transponder – the RFID tag – that has been programmed with information

  5. How should grounds and commons be connected to each other?

    by Bill Schweber on Analog IC Tips

    We have already looked briefly at Earth ground (if any), chassis ground, and commons (often misnamed as "grounds"). These do not exist as unrelated connections in a system. The issues related to connecting commons and ground is the subject of countless articles, academic papers, vendor application notes, anecdotes, and even books.

    There are many rules as to how to connect circuit commons to each other, to the chassis ground ...
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