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Tahmid

Zero crossing detection with PIC16F877A - Practical use of External Interrupt

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Zero crossing detection is very important, especially in power control circuits employing thyristors.

I have come across many people struggling with zero crossing detection with PIC microcontroller and thus they cannot fire triacs or SCRs as required.

So, here I have explained a simple method of detecting zero crossing with PIC16F877A, employing only two or three resistors, a bridge rectifier and an optocoupler for the hardware portion of zero cross detection.

The PIC 16F877A detects the zero crossing using the RB0/INT external interrupt function. I have explained how the zero cross is detected and how the PIC acts upon detection, below.



Fig. 1 - Schematic, zero crossing signal and RD0 signals

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Here is the code for PIC16F877A:
(You can download the source file from
https://rapidshare.com/files/604474700/ZeroCrossing.c )
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Code:
//Programmer: Syed Tahmid Mahbub
//Compiler: mikroC PRO for PIC v4.60
//Target PIC: PIC16F877A
//Program for zero-cross detection
//---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
unsigned char FlagReg;
sbit ZC at FlagReg.B0;

void interrupt(){
     if (INTCON.INTF){          //INTF flag raised, so external interrupt occured
        ZC = 1;
        INTCON.INTF = 0;
     }
}

void main() {
     PORTB = 0;
     TRISB = 0x01;              //RB0 input for interrupt
     PORTD = 0;
     TRISD = 0;                 //PORTD all output
     OPTION_REG.INTEDG = 0;      //interrupt on falling edge
     INTCON.INTF = 0;           //clear interrupt flag
     INTCON.INTE = 1;           //enable external interrupt
     INTCON.GIE = 1;            //enable global interrupt
    
     while (1){
           if (ZC){ //zero crossing occurred
              PORTD.B0 = 1; //Send a 1ms pulse
              delay_ms(1);
              PORTD.B0 = 0;
              ZC = 0;
           }
     }
}
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Explanation:



Fig. 2
Yellow - AC signal
Blue - signal on RB0


In yellow (in Figure 2), you can see the input AC voltage (sinusoidal waveform). BR1 rectifies this AC voltage to DC, but since there is no bulk smoothing capacitor, the output is not pure DC, but pulsating DC as shown below.



Fig. 3- The rectified pulsating DC

The output of the bridge rectifier BR1 is DC and current through optocoupler is limited by resistors R1 and R2 (you may use a single resistor instead of 2 if you want, but using 2 resistors distributes the power dissipation and thus generates less heat and lower power per resistor).

So, the optocoupler LED stays on for most of the cycle except when the AC sine wave "crosses zero" (is around zero). While the optocoupler LED is on, the transistor is on and so pulls pin RB0 of PIC16F877A low.

PIC16F877A is coded to enable the external interrupt. An interrupt is generated upon the falling edge of RB0. The diagram below will illustrate what I mean by falling edge.



Fig.4
Yellow - signal on RB0
Blue - signal from RD0

During most of the cycle, the optocoupler LED is on and so RB0 is low. When the optocoupler LED is off as the AC wave is about to cross "zero", RB0 goes high. The transition from low to high on RB0 is a rising edge. When the optocoupler LED is then again turned on as the AC wave crossed the "zero" level (zero crossing), RB0 goes low. This transition from high to low is a falling edge. And upon a falling edge, an interrupt is generated.

When an interrupt is generated, the ZC flag is set (see code above). In the main code, ZC flag is always checked (this is called polling a flag). When ZC flag is set (zero crossing occurred), a 1ms pulse is generated on RD0 (PORTD0) and then the ZC flag is cleared. For example's sake, I have produced a 1ms pulse. You can do whatever you want upon zero-cross detection. The ZC flag is then again continuously polled to check for next interrupt.

You can see all this illustrated in Figures 2, 3 and 4 above.

Further queries and comments are welcome.
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Updated 28th October 2012 at 08:13 by Tahmid

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Comments

  1. picgak's Avatar
    Tahmid i want to code protect 16f877A what code should I add
  2. Tahmid's Avatar
    You don't need to add any additional code. Just alter the configuration settings. In the configuration settings, turn code protection on. Check page 146 in the datasheet.
  3. picgak's Avatar
    Thank you very much. The following is the the portion of code in JAL. I think I should change 0x3F22. Tahmid can you sujest me something , I Know you dont use JAL but please sujest
    Code:
    include 16f877a_inc_all
    pragma target clock       20_000_000
    const word _fuses         = 0x3fff ; default value
    pragma target osc         hs
    pragma target watchdog    off
    -- HS, -BOD, ,-LVP, -WDT, -CP  = 0x3F22
    pragma target fuses       0x3F32
  4. picgak's Avatar
    Tahmid I have gone through page 146 of datasheet , if i set the configuration bit 13 (CP) to zero as pet data sheet will it prevent others from reading back the code from the microcontroller?
  5. Tahmid's Avatar
    Yes, CP must be set to 0. But you shouldn't access the register through the code, but instead do it in the beginning in the syntax required by the compiler.
  6. Don_dody's Avatar
    What are the values of R1, R2 ?
    What type of diodes are you use ?
  7. Tahmid's Avatar
    For R1 and R2, you can use 10k resistors. You can also use 22k. Experiment with the values!

    For the diodes, you can use 1N4007. I use a bridge rectifier: S1NB80.
  8. Don_dody's Avatar
    " When ZC flag is set (zero crossing occurred), a 1ms pulse is generated on RD0 (PORTD0) and then the ZC flag is cleared. "

    For example I connected Optocoupler - triac to portD0, so that means the firing will be started 1ms after zero crossing occurred ??
  9. Tahmid's Avatar
    No, it means that the firing starts right on/after zero crossing. A 1ms long pulse is generated. So, the triac latches on for the entire cycle.
  10. Don_dody's Avatar
    Hi, do you know why sometimes the external interrupt signal is not 5 V ? it is around 2V or below.
  11. Tahmid's Avatar
    Hi Don_dody,

    What do you mean when you say that the signal is not 5V, but 2V or below? I don't quite understand your question.
  12. Don_dody's Avatar
    When AC voltage crosses 0 Volt, the RB0 goes high. Previously I measured it (PIN RB0) 5 V, but sometimes in the oscilloscope it is around 2 V.
  13. djc's Avatar
    Hi Tahmid,

    I am struggling with same zero crossing detection circuit however with the ADC of microcontroller. I couldn't come up with strong logic to be implemented in C for zero crossing as mains frequency keeps on changing from 48hz to 52 hz. How to do that.